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电击疗法的前世今生

Why Electroshock Therapy Is Back

嗨 我是《分钟地球》凯特
Hi, this is Kate from MinuteEarth.
在20世纪中叶 治疗严重抑郁症的一个标准疗法
In themid-20th century, a standard treatment for
是将电极附在病人的脑壳上
severe depression was to attach electrodes to a
然后接上电源
patient’s skull and turn on the juice,
让电流通过大脑 引起暂时性发病
running an electrical current through the brain that would cause a brief seizure –
此过程 即著名的“电击疗法”
a process known as”electroshock therapy.”
这非常残忍
It was *shockingly* brutal, sometimes causing
有时还会造成骨折和短暂失忆 最终
broken bones andtemporary short term memory loss. Eventually,
人们意识到这些副作用
public awareness of these side effects
导致电击疗法受到越来越多的抵触
led to growing resistance to electroshock therapy
且使用率急剧下降
and a steep decline in its use.
但事实是 电击的确有效
But the thing was, electroshock DID work,
缓解了三分之二抑郁症病人的病症
alleviating depression in ⅔ of patients
效果远好于药物
– more than responded to drugs.
电击疗法可能有效 因为抑郁症似乎
Electricaltherapy likely works because depression seems
源于大脑常规电信号的紊乱
to stem from when the brain’s regular electricalsignals misfire.
向大脑输送一股电流
Sending a jolt of electricity
以诱发病症可能就像按下“重置”按钮
into the brain to induce a seizure might belike hitting a”reset” button. So some doctors
所以尽管臭名昭著一些医生仍继续使用
kept using electroshock despite its bad reputation.
但他们开始将电流定位于大脑的一侧
But they began targeting the current to one side of the brain
来尝试降低对记忆的影响
to try to reduce effects on memory,
并且使用麻醉和松肌剂
and using anaesthesia and muscle-relaxants to preventpainful convulsions
来阻止难忍的抽搐 扬长避短
keeping the good effects while reducing the side effects.
如今 这种疗法 被称为电痉挛疗法
Today the treatment – now called “ electroconvulsive therapy ” –
仍然会导致头痛 和短暂性失忆
still causes headaches and some short-term memory loss,
但它解决抑郁症的成功经验启发医生们
but its success short-circuiting depression has sparked doctors to begin treating
开始用电来治疗其他脑科疾病
other brain illnesses with electricity.
例如 异常的大脑放电活动会使帕金森晚期患者
For example, abnormal electrical activity in the brains of people
不能移动还会使他们的肌肉痉挛
with advanced Parkinson’s disease immobilizes them and makes their muscles twitch.
但是向大脑涉及运动的相关区域 输送规则的电脉冲
But sending regular pulses of electricity at the brain regions involved in movement
会中断这种信号
interrupts the misfiring,
让患者更加自由的移动并且
allowing the patients to move more freely and to experience far
更少发颤
fewer tremors.
许多其他脑科疾病也涉及电信号的紊乱
Lots of other brain diseases also involve electrical signaling gone haywire,
所以电击疗法 可能将益及更多人
so electrical therapies may be able to benefit a lot more people in the future.
假如研究还继续进行的话
That is, assuming research keeps on charging a-head.
感谢观看《分钟地球》
Thanks for watching MinuteEarth!
如果你喜欢 我们的节目 你可以通过访问
If you love what we do, you can support us
Patreon.com/MinuteEarth并每期赞赏小小的一美元
by going to Patreon.com/MinuteEarth and pledging as little
来支持我们
as a dollar per episode.
如果你愿意 你也可以就在YouTube这里支持我们
If you ’ d rather, you can also support us right here on YouTube
仅需点击视频下方的“赞赏”按钮来注册!
– just click the “ Sponsor ” button below the video to sign up!
你的支持意味着我们我们
Your support means we
能够花更多时间探究和解释 有关疾病治疗、种植方法
can spend more time exploring and explaining everything from disease therapies to plant
动物繁殖的一切
strategies to animal phallus-ies.
感谢!
Thanks!

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视频概述

电击疗法,大家都不陌生。但很少有人知道它的“身世”,没想到它曾受到重重阻挠,但现在依旧还在使用且潜力无限。快来看看它的“前世今生”!

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

山有木嘻嘻

审核员

审核员 AF

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OK1XdXsb-Tw

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