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解决臭氧层空洞对我们的启示

Why Don’t We Hear About the Ozone Hole Anymore? | Hot Mess 🌎

感谢PERIL &PROMISE对PVS Visual Studio的支持
Thanks for the founders of PERIL &PROMISE for supporting PVS Visual Studios
想象这样一个世界
Imagine a world where you couldn’t go
出门不到五分钟就要担心被严重晒伤
outside for more than 5 minutes without fear of a serious sunburn,
在那里皮肤癌是主要死因
where skin cancer was a leading cause of death,
农作物会因为外太空的有害辐射而枯萎死亡
and where crops withered and died under harmful radiationfrom outer space.
我们没有生活在那样一个世界 但是直到20世纪80年代
We don’t live in that world, but until the 1980s,
我们还在步入那种环境的路上
we were on our way there,
因为我们不知道 我们的日常用品
because, unbeknownst to us, substances we used every day
正在摧毁高层大气中
were destroying the layer of ozone gas in the upper atmosphere
保护地球免受太阳有害射线破坏的臭氧
that protects earth from the sun’s most damaging rays.
我们为了避免这种可怕现象而采取的措施
What we did to avoid that terrible future offers a roadmap
给我们处理另一个大气问题:气候变化
for how we could potentially handle a different
提供了思路
atmospheric problem: climate change.
在二十世纪早期
Early in the 20th century,
我们发明了叫做氟氯化碳或者称CFCs的化学物质
we invented chemicals called chlorofluorocarbons – or CFCs – and
这类物质非常的神奇
they were nearly miraculous;
无毒 不易燃 便宜 功能多样
non-toxic,nonflammable,cheap and really useful for
既能用于发胶和灭火器
as propelling hairspray and fire extinguishers
也可作为空调和冰箱的冷却剂
and as the cooling agent in air conditioners and refrigerators.
我们开始将CFCs喷到能喷的所有东西上 用到能用的所有东西里面
We started spraying CFCs on everything, andputting them in everything.
但是在1974年 我们意识到它们在平流层累积
But in 1974 we realized that they were accumulating in the stratosphere
并且转变成氯气 吞噬臭氧
turning into chlorine, and eating ozone for breakfast
由于臭氧减少
And with less ozone,
更多来自太阳的紫外线就会照射到地球上
more ultraviolet rays from the sun could pass down to earth and
辐射到我们的皮肤上
irradiate our skin.
因为CFCs是人类发明出来的特有的产物
Because CFCs were a uniquely human invention,
为了阻止它们消耗臭氧层
the only thing we could do stop them from
我们唯一能做就是减少使用CFCs
digesting the ozone layer, was to use less.
对于人类来说这是一个重大的转变 但是我们做的是正确的
And, in a shocking twist for humanity, we did the right thing.
在科学家将臭氧消耗同CFCs联系起来之后
After scientists connected CFCs to ozone depletion,
庄臣公司(美国大型公司)
a big US company–SC Johnson–voluntarily
主动将CFCs从喷雾剂类产品中剔除
removed CFCs from their aerosol products.
这激发了公众意识
This kindled public awareness,
经过几年的辩论和游说
and after a few years of messy debate and lobbying, the
美国环保局禁止在所有喷剂中使用CFCs
US Environmental Protection Agency bannedCFCs from all aerosols.
美国环保局的这条禁令给CFC替代品创造了市场
The EPA ban created a market for CFC alternatives,
美国的一些公司也发现了赚钱的一种新形式
and US companies saw a new way to make money
就是垄断市场
by cornering that market.
他们意识到可以将CFC的替代品销售到全球各地
Realizing they could sell the solutions to the rest
这些公司请求美国政府
of the world, those companies politely
在国际行动中打头阵
asked the US government to lead the chargeon international action.
就在那个时候
By that time,
我们确认了臭氧层存在一个巨大的空洞
we’d also identified a huge hole in the ozone layer, and people everywhere
世界各地的人们都呼吁签署国际协定
were calling for an international agreement.
该协定就是《蒙特利尔议定书 》
That agreement was called the Montreal Protocol,
这是第一个应对环境威胁的国际性环保协议
and it was the first environmental treaty dealing with a global threat.
它做的一项重要的事就是要求工业化国家
A key thing it did was require industrialized countries –
也就是导致大部分污染的国家
the ones doing most of the polluting
立即开始着手逐步淘汰CFCs
– to start phasing out CFCs immediately.
该协议的措辞十分灵活
It was also written to be very flexible,
所以随着科技的发展 我们可以将其他化学物质加入禁令
so as the science evolved, we could add other chemicals to the ban,
这也是我们仍正在做的
which we’re still doing.
最后它要求富裕国家
Finally it required rich countries
给予发展中国家金钱支持
to give cash to developing countries so they could
方便其更轻松地淘汰CFCs
more easily move away from CFCs.
这些措施都起到了作用
And it worked.
各国不再制造CFCs
Countries stopped making CFCs,
约30年后的今天 臭氧层很稳定
and today, around 30 years later, the ozone layer is stable,
臭氧空洞也在缩小
and the ozone hole is healing.
这是一个巨大的成功
This was a huge success.
我们是如何做到的呢?
How’d we do it?
我们慢慢的开始更换掉
By transitioning away from a useful substance
在家里和工作时都需要的日常用品
that we used everyday in our homes and our jobs.

Huh,
这跟我听过的其他事情有些类似
that sounds similar to something elseI’ve heard about.
我在想我们是不是可以从保护臭氧中学习经验
I wonder if we can take any lessons
然后利用这些经验
from protecting the ozone layer and apply them to how we address
解决其他的全球大气问题——气候变化
that other global atmospheric challenge – climatechange.
就像上个世纪我们对待CFCs一样
Like we did with CFCs last century,
我们今天正释放其他的气体到大气层
today we’re emitting other gases that get into
将大气层变得一团糟
the atmosphere and screw things up And what
温室气体会困住热量
these greenhouse gases do is trap heat.
所以为了防止地球变得过热
So, in order to keep the planet
我们需要减少温室气体排放
from getting too hot, we need to reduce our greenhouse gas emissions
有趣的是
What’s interesting is,
就如同庄臣公司摒弃CFCs的情况一样
just as SC Johnson moved away from CFCs, we’re seeing some
我们看到一些公司——包括庄臣
companies today–including that same company–committing to
承诺使用更多的再生能源
using more renewable energy and lowering
并减少排放
their emissions.
我们应对气候变化的主要国际协议
And the major international agreement we’ve written up to take action on climate change
在很多方面都以《蒙特利尔协定》为蓝本
is modeled after the Montreal Protocol ina lot of ways.
富裕国家需要快速减少CFC的使用
Rich countries need to clean up
以及为发展中国家提供资金
quickly and to provide money for developing countries
尽到其应尽的义务
to do their part.
当然 为了减少CFC排放
Of course, to get rid of CFC emissions,
我们只需要将含CFCs的冰箱和空调
we pretty much just had to replace refrigerators
换成不含CFCs的就可以了
and air conditioners that used CFCs with onesthat didn’t.
但另一方面 化石燃料
Fossil fuels, on the on the other hand,
基本上在为所有东西提供动力
are something we burn to power basically everything,
因此阻止温室气体的排放将更具挑战性
so preventing greenhouse gas emissions willbe slightly more challenging. So,
我们不能像修复臭氧层一样
we can’t fix climate change exactly
解决气候变化
like we patched up the ozone layer.
但这对如何将政府 市场
But it is a useful recipe for how governments, markets,
以及全球消费者联合起来 解决这个大难题
and consumers worldwide can cooperate
是一个很好的借鉴
to solve a big problem.
我的意思是 我们之前认为CFCs是生活中的必需品
I mean, we used to think CFCs were an essential part of life,
但是我们团结一致
but we banded together and figured
找出了淘汰它们的方法
out how to move beyond them,
这让我们知道 我们可以用同样的方式
which gives hope that we might be able to do the same thing
来解决化石燃料问题
with fossil fuels.
这个问题就留给你们了
I’ll leave you with this,
想一下 某天你的子孙能够回顾气候变化
imagine if your grandchildren could look back on climate change
就如同我现在回顾臭氧层发生的事件
someday in the same way that I can now look back at what happened to the ozone layer
我出生前不久
Right before I was born,
人类能够团结一致 改变自己的行为
we were able to get our act together and change course, avoiding
避免了非常可怕的一个未来
a pretty terrible future.
现在希望我们也可完成同样的事情
Here’s to hoping we can do that again.

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视频概述

臭氧层空洞的问题通过全世界的共同努力解决了,希望我们能像战胜它一样,共同协商解决气候变化

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mQpa_NYXUGI

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