未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

为什么清道夫不会生病

Why Don't Scavengers Get Sick?

当一个生物死亡的时候 它天生的免疫防御功能就失效了 微小的分解者就开始侵入了
When a creature croaks, its natural defenses fail and tiny decomposers start digging in
甚至只需要五分钟的时间
within just five minutes.
为了制止更大的食肉食草动物寻觅大餐 一些正在进行分解的微生物会产生一种毒素
To deter bigger carnivores in search of a meal, some feasting microbes produce toxins
像是炭疽或肉毒素 只要一点点 这些就足以对动物之王造成毁灭性伤害
like anthrax and botulinum, tiny doses of which are fatal to much of the animal kingdom.
然而许多清道夫也吃死肉 却没有受到什么影响
Yet many scavengers get shoulder-deep in dead meat without seeming to suffer – and we’re
我们就来看看到底它们是怎么做到的呢
just beginning to understand how they do it.
质量控制是他们防御工作的首要步骤之一
Quality control is one of their earliest lines of defense.
狼和狐狸都有这样的本领 在捕食过程中遇到被其他捕食者杀死的猎物时
Wolves and foxes have been known to pass up diseased reindeer carcasses in favor of prey
能够略过病态的 比如病态驯鹿尸体的能力 但是没有人知道它们为什么能区分出来
killed by other predators, although it’s not yet clear how they can tell the difference.
同时 即使它们有这种名声 黑斑犬还是更愿意食用新鲜的肉
And, despite their reputation, spotted hyenas prefer to dine on fresh meat, minimizing their
减少和微生物 细菌等的接触
contact with microbes.
但是有时候 严重腐烂的肉体是仅有的可选食物
But sometimes, severely rotten flesh is the only item on the menu.
并且有一些清道夫 比如埋葬虫和秃鹰 是想吃到腐尸肉的
And some scavengers, such as burying beetles and vultures, actually seek out putrid carrion
因为毕竟这更加容易被探测和挖掘出来 也更容易保护控制
because it’s easier to detect, dig into, and defend.
为了在美餐时和一些微生物对抗 埋葬虫会在开动之前 往尸体上涂布一些
To combat the microorganisms in these meals, the beetles smear carcasses with antimicrobial
抗菌黏液
slime before feeding.
其他的清道夫更愿意选择使用餐后的抗生素
Other scavengers prefer an after-dinner antibiotic.
有须秃鹰会用胃酸攻击微生物 这个酸性
Bearded vultures assault microbes with stomach acid that’s ten times more acidic than our
比我们人体的强十倍 足以侵蚀钢铁制品
own, and strong enough to corrode steel.
但是一些顽固的病原体 包括一些导致肉毒中毒和破伤风的病原体
But some tenacious pathogens, including the ones that cause botulism and tetanus, make
能比较好地避开腐蚀性环境中 能在肠的位置存活繁衍
it through this caustic cauldron and thrive in the intestines beyond.
我们不确定秃鹰怎样做到 在最开始接触毒性环境时存活下来 但是我们知道
We’re not sure how vultures survive their first few toxic exposures, but we know that
每一次接触以后 它们的免疫系统都会炮制出更多的免疫抗体
with each encounter, their immune systems churn out more and more antibodies, building
从而对毒素形成了更强的抵抗力
resistance to the toxins.
社交同样可以给清道夫一个免疫助推力
Socializing can also give scavengers an immune boost.
土狼和狮子就是这样 举个例子 在它们打理身体 进食 或者互相打斗的时候
Hyenas and lions, for instance, likely pass small doses of germs around as they groom,
会传播一小部分的细菌 同时也帮助提高了一系列对毒素的免疫力
eat, and compete with each other, which may help build up group-wide immunity to toxins
就比如炭疽
like anthrax.
类似地 我们人类会通过接触控制剂量的病毒
Similarly, we humans have established our own herd immunity through controlled exposure
来提高免疫力 以预防脑膜炎和天花这类的疾病 我们称之为接种疫苗
to diseases like meningitis and smallpox – we call it vaccination.
不过我们还不知道怎么治疗肉毒中毒和炭疽 所以或许我们可以以一些清道夫为食
But we have yet to beat botulism or anthrax, so perhaps we can scavenge some of these scavengers’
了解它们背后的机理 毕竟我们和它们之间相近的地方 比我们愿意承认的还要多
tricks – after all, we have more in common with them than we may like to admit.
本集分钟地球由HARRY’s.com赞助播出 这是一个关于剃须修面的网站
This episode of MinuteEarth is supported by HARRY’s.com, a website devoted entirely to shaving.
Harry’s 带来了高质量 特别是不断提高的品质和只有大牌一半的亲民价格
Harry’s offers high quality, seriously sharp raises and half the price of big-name brands.
我不剃须 但是我父亲每天都剃须 他说Harry’s是他这些年用过的剃须产品里面最棒的
I do not shave, but my dad does daily. And he says Harry’s is the nicest shave he has had in years.
不论是生态学测试还是微小的设计细节都很完美
Perfect for both ecological field research and writing minute scripts.
Harry’s因其产品外观和体验而著称 即使是对于小孩子来说也不例外
Harry’s is proud of the looking feel of their raisers, as well as the kids.
包括好玩的剃须泡沫和剃须后可选择的护理保养
Including form in joy of shave cream and optional after shave,
所有这些都可以上门为您服务
all of which they deliver right to your home.
在初次登录HARRY’s.com网站时 你可以用优惠码 分钟地球 得到五美元
You can get five dollars of your first pro just at Harry’s.com, by using the Coupon code: MinuteEarth.
这就能让他们知道你是通过分钟地球节目而去的 十分感谢HARRY’s.com对于分钟地球节目的支持
It lets them know you are MinuteEarth in. And thanks to HARRY’s.com for helping support MinuteEarth.

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

为什么清道夫不会生病不会有死亡威胁?你看你看你看

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

我可以改一个名字呀

审核员

嘉言先森

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GPJBw-TLYZQ

相关推荐