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为什么鸭子的脚在冰上不会冻住 – 译学馆
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为什么鸭子的脚在冰上不会冻住

Why Don't Duck's Feet Freeze On Ice?

此片段由CuriosityStream提供
This episode is sponsored by CuriosityStream
了解更多请登陆CuriosityStream.com/animalwonders
and you can go to curiositystream.com/animalwonders to learn more.
嗨 我是Jessie 这里是动物奇迹
Hi, I’m Jessie and this is Animal Wonders.
最近 有年轻观众问我
I was recently asked by one of our young viewers
在寒冷的湖里 鸭子的脚怎样不被冻住
how ducks keep their feet from freezing in a cold lake.
我很高兴可以讨论这个问题
And I’m excited to be able to talk about it.
[音乐]
[Music]
动物奇迹
ANIMAL WONDERS MONTANA
我一直惊叹 一些适应性强的动物
I’m constantly surprised by some of the incredible adaptations
不得不在绝境中生存
certain animals have to survive in extreme environments.
例如帝企鹅在严寒的南极洲生存
Like emperor penguins in the frigid cold of Antarctica,
埃及沙鱼在沙漠里的沙里逃逸
Egyptian sandfish escaping into the sand of the desert,
琵琶鱼在黑暗的海洋深处繁衍
and anglerfish thriving in the deep dark of the ocean.
因此当我看到像鸭子这样的动物时
So when I look at an animal like a duck,
有时会容易忽略这个事实
it’s sometimes easy to overlook the fact that
鸭子能够在极寒的冷水里游泳
they can swim in seriously cold water
或是站在冰上 而它们的脚并不会被冻住
or stand on ice and not have their feet freeze solid.
这一切都是因为温度回流系统
And this is all because of an amazing thing called Countercurrent Heat Exchange.
现在的情况是鸭子身上的热血
What’s happening is the warm blood
顺着腿部流下来
from the duck’s body flows down their leg,
与从脚回流到腿上的冷血
and comes into close contact with cold blood
密切接触
traveling from their foot back up their leg.
冷热血液之间有着密切的联系
The close contact between the hot and cold blood
这种联系降低了热血的温度
brings the temperature of warm blood down
而提高了冷血的温度
and increases the temperature of the cold blood.
这确实是两种转换
This does two things:
冷血的温度回流到它们体内
The temperature of the cold blood going back into their body,
热量增加 因此它们的核心体温没有降低
heats up so it doesn’t bring their core temperature down.
在流向脚部之前 热血会不断地冷却
And the warm blood gets colder before it reaches their foot,
所以鸭子的脚部温度与冰的温度差不多
so the temperature of their foot and the temperature of the ice are closer together.
让我们再进一步关注
Let’s look at this a little closer.
当两者的温度不同时就会产生温度交换
Heat exchange happens when there’s a difference in temperature between two objects.
温差越大
The bigger the difference in temperature,
热量从热方转到冷方的速度就会越快
the quicker heat will move from the hot object to the cooler object.
如果温差较小
If there’s less of a difference in temperature,
那么温度交换就会变慢
the heat exchange will be slower.
因此 当鸭子身上的暖血流向腿部时
So, when the warm blood from a duck’s body travels down their leg
从脚上流出的暖血冷却时
and gets cool by the blood traveling up from the foot,
冰与鸭子脚部的温差就会越来越小
the difference between the temperature of the ice and their foot gets smaller,
这意味着当血液一路流向脚部时
which means that by the time the blood gets all the way down to their foot,
它会变冷 且温度交换减少
it’s quite cold and the heat exchange decreases.
惊讶的是 鸭子站在冰上时 脚部的热量
Surprisingly, ducks that are standing on ice
只流失了百分之五左右
lose only about 5% of their heat from their feet
而身体的热量流失了大约百分之九十五
and they lose 95% from their body,
尽管它们被温暖的羽毛包裹着
even though they’re covered in warm feathers.
这种温度回流系统使它们在低温下生存
The Countercurrent Heat Exchange System helps them survive in the cold temperatures.
这种系统同样作用于其他的动物
And the same system works for other animals, too.
比如北极狐
Like arctic foxes,
它们大多数时间都是在雪地上行走或挖洞
who walk on and dig in snow for long periods of time.
这是Cas 他在炫耀他漂亮的冬衣
This is Cas and he’s showing off his amazing winter coat.
他的皮毛显然给了他很大的帮助
His fur will definitely help.
但是使他生存下来的不只是他的皮毛
But it’s not the only thing that will help him survive in the cold.
在他们的脚掌上 也有温度回流系统
Arctic foxes also have countercurrent heat exchange systems in their paws
以防止脚被冻住
to keep them from freezing,
和在极寒的冬天 减少身体热量的流失
and to reduce the loss of body heat during the extremely cold winters.
朋友 你也有超级脚掌
You have super paws, buddy!
现在温度回流系统既有利于寒冷天气的动物
Now, Countercurrent Heat Exchange Systems not only work for cold weather animals.
也有利于生活在炎热环境的动物
They also help animals who live in hot environments, too.
火烈鸟因有粉色的羽毛 纤细的长足而闻名
Flamingos are famous for their pink feathers and long legs.
但不是很多人都知道
But not many people know
它们所站的水域会特别炎热
that the waters they stand in can get incredibly hot.
它们觅食的浅水区
The shallow waters they hunt for food in
温度可达115华氏度
can get up to 115 degrees Fahrenheit.
它们会很快过热
And they could quickly become overheated
如果没有自我保护措施的话
if they didn’t have something to protect them.
火烈鸟的腿上也有同样的
Flamingos also have the same
像鸭子一样的温度回流系统
countercurrent heat exchange system in their legs like ducks do.
但并不是为了保暖
But instead of keeping them warm,
而是为了降温
it helps cool them off.
记住两者之间的温差越小
Remember that the smaller the difference in temperature between two objects
温度交换发生次数就越少
the less heat exchange will take place.
因此对于火烈鸟来说 它们的体温
So for flamingos, their body temperature is
比它们所呆的热水区更低
cooler than the hot water they’re standing in.
较冷的血液从身体流向腿部
The cooler blood travels from their body into their leg,
随着血液往下流和来自
and as it goes down it intertwines with hot blood
下半部的腿和脚处的血液相融合
coming up from their lower leg and foot.
这样就使得较冷的血液变热
That heats up the cooler blood.
因此当它们进入水里时
So when it reaches the water,
水温与足部温度大抵相同
it’s closer in temperature.
所以来自水的温度交换没有那么急速
So the heat exchange from the water is less dramatic than it would be.
如果温差较大
If the temperature difference was bigger,
热血就会从腿部回升到体内
the hot blood then comes back up their leg toward their body,
并被流下来的血液冷却
and it is cooled down by the blood coming down,
这样可以确保它们不会把热血送入体内
which makes sure they don’t pump hot blood back into their body.
想必你见过火烈鸟用一只脚站立 对吧?
And you’ve seen flamingos standing on one foot, right?
那是因为这样做更有效率
They do this because it’s more efficient.
当只有一只脚站在水里时
Because they only have one foot in the hot water,
可以减少温度的交换
it reduces the exchange of heat
从水里到体内甚至更多
from the water to their body even more.
所以这个看起来鸭子和火烈鸟都能做到的
So this seemingly simple thing that ducks and flamingos can do
简单的回流要比表面上看到的更加复杂
is more complicated than it looks.
感谢您的好奇心和我一起学习
Thanks for being curious and learning with me.
如果你想继续探索
If you’d like to continue going on adventures,
别忘记订阅
be sure to subscribe.
如果有任何疑问
And if you have any questions you’d like me to answer,
请在下方留言
leave them in the comments below.
现在我喜欢研究动物和它们身体工作机制
Now I love learning about animals and how their bodies work,
所以最近我在CuriosityStream上面看了这个视频
which is why I recently watched this video
叫做《动物看到的世界》
called What Animals See on CuriosityStream.
我喜欢重温一些我自以为很熟悉的信息
I enjoyed revisiting some information I thought I knew pretty well,
但是我意识到我还没有完全探索出来
but realized I hadn’t explored fully.
现在我渴望再次深入这个兔子洞
And now I’m eager to continue delving down the rabbit hole once again.
你可以在CuriosityStream上面找到视频
You can find the video on CuriosityStream
CuriosityStream是今天视频的出品商
who is the sponsor of today’s video.
这里有个有订阅流媒体服务
There is a subscription streaming service
提供了超过两千条纪录片和非虚构标题
that offers over 2000 documentaries and nonfiction titles
来自世界上一些最好的电影制作人 包括独家原创
from some of the world’s best filmmakers, including Exclusive Original.
每月只需2.99美元就可以无限地访问
Get unlimited access starting at just $2.99 a month,
对于我们的观众来说 头30天是完全免费的
and for our audience the first 30 days are completely free
只要你在CuriosityStream.com/animalwonders
if you sign up at CuriosityStream.com/animalwonders,
上面注册且在注册过程中使用了优惠码
and use the promo code animalwonders during the signup process.
感谢收看 我们下周再见
Thanks and we’ll see you next week.
动物奇迹
ANIMAL WONDERS MONTANA

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视频概述

该视频主要记录了鸭子等其他动物的温度回流系统,揭秘它们是如何在寒冷或炎热的环境下生存。

听录译者

XC8849

翻译译者

liar🐐

审核员

审核员_LM

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EmlEQbxvMBc

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