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为什么美国人不吃驯鹿

Why Don't Americans Eat Reindeer?

嗨 我是《分钟地球》的凯特
Hi, this is Kate from MinuteEarth.
在北美
In North America,
每年驯鹿大概都会作为给圣诞老人
we tend to think of reindeer once a year,
拉雪橇的半虚构生物
as semi-mythical flying creatures
在我们脑海中闪现一次
that pull Santa’s sleigh around the world.
然而它不仅仅是真的
Yet not only are reindeer real
而且…如果历史发生了一点点变动
– if things had gone a little differently,
我们可能会经常吃下
we might be regularly chowing down
闪电汉堡
on Blitzen burgers.
因为
That’s because,
19世纪末 当美国从俄国
when The United States bought Alaska
买下拉斯维加斯
from Russia in The late 1800s,
美国的企业家们就看到了商机
American entrepreneurs saw an opportunity
复制在俄国已经很成熟的
to replicate Russia’s long-established
驯鹿养殖产业
reindeer herding industry,
并且开始把家养的驯鹿装船
and started shipping domesticated
运抵阿拉斯加
reindeer over to Alaska.
但结果显示驯鹿
But it turns out that
非常顽皮
reindeer are kind of naughty.
整个畜群消失在了
Entire herds disappeared into
广阔的阿拉斯加山地
the vast Alaskan landscape,
在那儿 它们不是死了就是加入了
where they died or ran off with
当地的野生驯鹿
the area’s native, wild reindeer.
欧洲与俄国的驯鹿养殖业
Reindeer herders in Europe and Russia
也有同样的问题
had similar problems,
但是3000年的放牧历史让他们
but with a 3000-year head start,
知道驯鹿
their experience gave them a keener sense of
可能跑到哪了
where their animals might wander.
另一使驯鹿退出北美市场
Something else that kept reindeer from
的是牛
taking off in North America was cows…
是的 牛
yes, cows.
尽管有许多驯鹿供应商
Despite lots of reindeer-product marketing,
但美国人已经有自己喜欢吃的肉类了
Americans already had meat that they liked;
每年牛肉的销量是驯鹿肉
they bought thousands of times more beef
销量的数千倍
than reindeer each year.
尽管如此 牛肉生产商仍然
Yet the cattle industry
在卖力地游说议员反对驯鹿产业
still lobbied hard against reindeer,
甚至令一些州通过了禁止
even getting some local laws passed
销售驯鹿肉的法律
that prohibited its sale entirely.
驯鹿肉生产商的日子可不好过
Times were tough for the reindeer industry,
紧接着大萧条到来了
and then the Great Depression struck.
由于人们挣得少了
As people’s incomes plummeted,
他们尝试异域风情驯鹿肉
so too did their interest
的兴趣也降低了
in trying exotic reindeer meat.
许多养殖驯鹿的人
Many reindeer herders,
都收不回自己的投资
unable to recoup their costs,
驯鹿群被丢下
left their animals to wander at will,
在20年间
and within 20 years,
九成以上的驯鹿
over 90% of these reindeer
由于过度放牧 捕杀
succumbed to overgrazing, predators,
和野性的呼唤而消失
and the call of the wild.
现在 只有在阿拉斯加州西北部
Today, a very small reindeer herding industry
仍有一小部分驯鹿养殖产业
still exists in far northwest Alaska.
但大多数驯鹿肉都在当地被消费
But most of the meat is eaten locally,
驯鹿产业又出现了新的挑战
and new challenges – like a warming climate that
比如气候变暖导致驯鹿的食物
can trap reindeer food under a thick layer of ice
冻在厚厚的冰层下面
– are making it even tougher
这使得驯鹿养殖更加困难了
to herd the creatures.
也许对于我们大多数人
So for most of us,
驯鹿仍然是给圣诞老人
reindeer will probably remain relegated
拉雪撬的
to Santa’s sleigh:
鼻子亮亮的鲁道夫
Rudolph, with his nose so bright
今晚不会出现在你的盘子上
Won’t be on your plate tonight.
这个假期你可能吃不到
You might not be eating reindeer
驯鹿肉了
this holiday season,
但你可以方便地
but here’s something that’s easier
得到
to get your hands on:
Audible的试订
a free trial subscription to Audible.
Audible是有声书供应商的领头羊
They’re the leading provider of audiobooks,
它拥有无与伦比的全面的
with an unmatched selection of
文学作品选集
titles of all types of literature.
其中一个有趣的选择是 由罗杰·哈菲德著
One fun pick is “The Physics of Christmas:
从驯鹿的空气动力学谈到
From the Aerodynamics of Reindeer to
火鸡的热力学
the Thermodynamics of Turkey,”
的圣诞节物理学
by Roger Highfield,
严格地讲鲁道夫也可能是女的
which suggests that – scientifically speaking –
节目中将会
Rudolph might actually be female.
告诉你为什么
To find out why,
登陆audible网站
download “The Physics of Christmas,”
免费下载 圣诞节的物理学
or get another book of your choice,
或者选一本其他书
for free, by going to audible.com/minuteearth
体验30天
and signing up for a 30-day trial.
如果你想
Also, if you’d like to learn more about
了解关于驯鹿的生物学知识
the reindeer biology
和它的饲养历史
or the history of reindeer herding,
Reddit上的一些
join us and some reindeer experts
驯鹿专家
right now on Reddit,
开设了一个关于本视频
which is hosting an AskScience
的问答讨论
Discussion about this video.
下方有链接
The link is in the description…
下集再见
see you there!

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视频概述

讲述了美国驯鹿养殖产业的萌芽与衰败

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

ID269421

审核员

W

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=owNMCTmbG9w

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