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为什么冬天杀不死动植物 – 译学馆
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为什么冬天杀不死动植物

Why Doesn't Winter Kill All The Fish And Plants?

嗨 大家好
Hey,there!
欢迎收看《生活碎碎念》
Welcome to  Life Noggin.
能生活在网际空间 我十分幸运 这里就像烤箱 到处都是滋滋作响的线路
I’m lucky enough to live in cyberspace where the circus are toasty
你还总能从慈爱的“母”板那里 得到热气腾腾的巧克力热饮
and you could always get a warm cup of hot chocolate from your loving mother board.
但是我的很多人类朋友都知道
But many of my human friends know this time
这个寒冷的时节 我们称之为冬天
is that chilly season called winter
你可以裹得严严实实的 在壁炉旁烤棉花糖
you may be able to bound up in sweater and roast marshmallow around the fireplace
但是在这天寒地冻的几个月里 植物和鱼类会怎么样呢?
but what happens to those plants and fish during this cold month?
嗯 我们水里的朋友很幸运
Well, lucky for our aquatic friends
当外面的温度低于水的冰点时
when the temperature outside falls below the freezing point of water
通常只有湖泊或河流的表层会结冰
only the top layers of the lakes or rivers typically freeze
在冰层之下 水仍然是液态
under the frozen layer the water remains its liquid stay
氧气吸附在冰下
and oxygen is tracted below the ices
这给鱼提供了生存的环境
This gives fish the environment to survive.
但是冰冷的水温 以及如食物匮乏等其他状况
But the cold water and other conditions like less access to food
使得冰下的生活变得缓慢起来
cause life below the ice to slow down.
某些物种会降低体内的代谢率 如鳕鱼和比目鱼
Certain species like cod and flatfish have reduced metabolic rate
另外它们的体液里会产生一些分子
in the inside and produce molecules in their bodily fluids
以降低它们的冰点 所以 它们才不会冻住
that lower their freezing point. So they don’t freeze.
就像你为了过冬 要穿上温暖的衣服
Just like how you prepare for the winter by stacking up on warmer clothes
泡上南瓜拿铁咖啡一样
and pumpkin spice lattes
植物也会为即将到来的冬天做好准备
Plants also take step to prepare for the coming cold
你知道么 当看到秋天树叶变色的时候
you know when you see the leave changing color in autumn
如此的美丽 但紧接着它们会凋零
and it is so beautiful, and then they fall off
实际上 那就是所谓脱落过程的一部分
that is actually a part of process known as abscission
大部分树的树叶颜色由于缺乏叶绿素而改变
Well, most scissure tree shed their leaves after their colors change
随后它们会脱落下来
for a loss of chlorophyll
而叶绿素是光合作用不可或缺的元素
The chemical that is involved in photosynthesis
由于冬天缺乏水和阳光
with a lack of water and sunlight in the winter month
所以光合作用会变弱 最后叶绿素也会减少
there is less photosynthesis and eventually less chlorophyll
使得树叶显示出不同的颜色
allowing the leave’s other colors to appear.
但是 植物如何知道冬天的到来呢?
But how do plants know that winter is coming?
《权利的游戏》中的某个角色一定告诉它们了 对吧
A certain game of thrones character must’ve told them right
看到肖恩·宾(奈德·史塔克扮演者 史塔克家族的祖训是Winter is coming) 你就该警告植物们了吧
surely you’ve warmed the plants when you play by Sean Bean
这是本节目第101次引用《权利的游戏》内容 好了 言归正传
That game of thrones’ reference No.101all joking aside
植物有压力记忆
Plants have a stress memory
再次进入寒冷环境时 植物能更有效地
and that they have the ability to respond more efficiently to a stress like cold
应对如寒冷这样的压力
The second time that is introduced
目前已经得到证实 很多不同环境带来的压力 会改变植物的染色质
Many different environmental stresses have been shown to alter the chromatin
以及遗传标记物 植物体内的染色为此提供了证据
and epigenetic marks of plants providing evidence within their chromosome
证明它们的确有压力记忆
They do indeed have memories of stress
这虽无法证明百分百正确
This is not downright proof that must be true
但确实有力地支持了 植物有压力记忆这一理论
But it does strongly support the theory of plants’ stress memory
所以 一旦植物进入冬天 它们要怎样存活呢?
So once plants are all set up for winter, how did they survive?
相比叉子而言 地球上的蔬菜沙拉们不得不担心另一件重要的事情
Well, there is one big thing that salads of the world have to worry about
它们需要保护自己免受冰晶的伤害
more than forks, they need to protect themselves from damaging ice crystals
特别是那些植物自身细胞中 可能形成的冰晶
especially ones that would form inside the cells themselves
很多植物通过抗脱水机制来防范这种情况
Many Plants guard against this by using a defense dehydration mechanism
它们将细胞内的水移出至细胞间
The plants move water out of the cells and into the area
人们通常认为 细胞内形成冰
between the cells. Intracellular ice formation is generally considered
对植物而言是致命的 而细胞外的冰却有可能
lethal for plants, but the ice outside the cell gives the potential
让植物存活下来 也有一些树木会自制美味“饮品”
to survive. Some trees also add their own delicious twist
来对抗寒冷 树木细胞中的液体 主要是水
to fight winter’s freezing. The fluid inside tree cell that used to mainly water
在脱水后变得含有更多的糖
is changing the contain farmor sugar after dehydration
这种糖会让细胞冰点降低
This sugar itself gives the cell a lower freezing point
并保护植物免受“杰克霜”的欺侮
for the protecting them from that plant bully called Jack Frost
你会做些什么事情 来度过寒冬呢?
What are some things that you do to Help survive the chills of winter?
请在评论区留言
Let me know in the comment section below
另外 如果你想知道 为什么你们人类总是不停发抖
And if you want to know, why you human shiver so much
你可以看看我台之前关于该主题
you should probably check out this vedio that Life Noggin did
发布的视频 这都是从皮肤开始的
on that exact subject. Well, It all starts at the skin
当身处寒冷的气候中 皮肤里的冷感受器会察觉温度变化
When you’re out in the cold the temperature detected by cold recept in the skin
我是方块哥 您收看的是《生活碎碎念》节目
I’m bloggle, this has been Life Noggin
别忘了 要不断思考哦~
Don’t forget to keep on thinking

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视频概述
听录译者

月上海棠

翻译译者

WeiRan

审核员

【MR】拾月

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P8I8pVGhLWc

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