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为什么超级马里奥没有一个日语名字? – 译学馆
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为什么超级马里奥没有一个日语名字?

Why Doesn't Super Mario Have A Japanese Name?

流行文化是日本传播最广的事物之一
One of Japan’s biggest exports is their popular culture.
这很容易理解
And that’s easy to understand.
日本带给我们许多虚构形象
Japan has blessed us with many fictional icons
比如龙猫 哥斯拉 凯蒂猫 和皮卡丘
from Totoro, Godzilla, Hello Kitty and Pikachu.
当然 日本最有名的
But of course Japan’s most famous son
还是任天堂的代表角色
is the face of Nintendo,
也可以说是所有电子游戏的代表角色——超级马里奥
and pretty much the face of all video games, Super Mario,
他的全名是马里奥·马里奥
whose full name is actually Mario Mario,
这是设计者宫本茂亲自确认的
like his creator Shigeru Miyamoto’s actually confirmed that himself.
关于马里奥有很多趣事
There’s many things interesting about Mario.
但我相信你已经猜到我们今天的关注点:
However, I’m sure you can guess what we are here to look at:
马里奥的名字
that name of Mario.
有趣的是 尽管马里奥是
What’s interesting is how despite being one of those
日本创造的众多受欢迎的角色之一
popular characters come out of Japan,
他的名字却与日语毫无关联
he has a severely un-Japanese name,
而是与意大利语有关
a name associated with Italian.
虽然也出现在西班牙语和葡萄牙语中
And though it’s also present within Spanish and Portuguese.
据称 这名字来自拉丁词汇“Marius”
The name is believed to come from the Latin Marius,
和战神的名字玛尔斯(Mars)有关
which is believed to be linked to the god of war himself, Mars.
幸运的是 马里奥的设计者和这并不是一回事
Luckily, creators of Mario are not one and the same.
之前我提到名字都有日语词源
Previous names I mentioned all have roots in Japanese,
或对日语名字做出了适合西方的改变
or Western adaptations of their Japanese names.
然而 无论在世界哪个地方
Wherever you go around the world, however,
在日本还是在说英语的国家
whether it be in Japan or an English-speaking country,
马里奥一直被叫做马里奥
Mario is always called Mario.
所以为什么这样一个日本形象却不起日本名字呢?
So why does such a Japanese icon lack a Japanese name?
虽然马里奥是其所属系列的主角
Mario may be the star of his own series,
但他首次登场却并非在一款马里奥游戏中
but his first appearance wasn’t in a Mario game.
实际上 我们第一次见到他时 他甚至还不叫马里奥
In fact, he wasn’t even called Mario when we first met him.
我们需要将时间回拨到1977年
We have to go all the way back to 1977
那时宫本茂刚刚就职于任天堂
when Shigeru Miyamoto was first employed by Nintendo.
正处于街机游戏生意最为火爆的时期
This was during the boom of the arcade cabinet business.
任天堂的游戏在其本土日本销路不错
Nintendo’s games were doing well in their native Japan
却在美国市场销量惨淡
but struggling in America.
特别是《雷达范围》
One game in particular was Radar Scope,
在美国市场遇冷 任天堂还剩下许多街机滞留库存
which bombed stateside and left Nintendo with many unused cabinets.
但这些街机却并没有被弃之了事
Instead of leaving them to waste, it was decided that
任天堂决定开发一款新游戏
Nintendo would just program a new game into them.
这项任务交给了宫本茂
And that job was left to Miyamoto.
他们知道自己需要开发出
They knew they wanted something that
吸引西方玩家的游戏
will appeal to the Western audiences.
一开始任天堂想要
To start with, Nintendo tried to
获得制作大力水手游戏的版权
get the rights to make a Popeye game.
然而未能实现
However, that fell through.
所以任天堂必须
So Nintendo got to work on
为游戏设计属于自己的角色
making their own characters for the game,
因此诞生了角色大金刚(Donkey Kong)
which led to the creation of Donkey Kong.
关于大金刚
And while on the subject of Donkey Kong,
我们来说说他的名字
let’s talk about that name.
小时候 别人告诉我说这是Monkey Kong打错了字
When I was a kid, I was told it was a typo of Monkey Kong.
但显然这个名字就是大金刚(Donkey Kong)
But apparently, it always meant to be Donkey Kong,
名字里的Donkey指的是
with the Donkey name meant to provoke the idea of
倔强如驴
being stubborn like a donkey, anyway.
这个游戏里 不仅引入了大金刚这个角色
In this game, we were introduced to not only DK himself,
还有陷入危险的少女保琳
but Pauline, the damsel in distress.
以及一位穿着粗布工作服 胡须浓密的木匠
and a dungaree-clad mustachioed carpenter,
当时的名字叫做跳跃人
named, at the time, Jumpman.
为什么叫跳跃人?
Why Jumpman?
因为他做的最多的事就是跳跃
Well, one of the things he did most was jump.
游戏大获成功
The game was a huge success and led to
因此诞生了我们今天所知道的平台游戏
the creation of the platform game as we know it today.
但一开始人们叫他视频先生
Originally however he was known as Mr.Video
因为他是视频游戏里的角色
as he was the star of a video game.
马里奥的名字主要来源于他的角色设计
A key reason behind Mario’s name is due to his design.
一个穿着粗布工作服的小矮人 为何能当视频游戏的英雄呢?
Why would you make a hero of a videogame a short guy in dungarees?
看起来一点不像一般的英雄角色
Definitely not the most conventional looking hero.
如果你去了解早期的视频游戏角色
Well, if you look at early videogame characters,
你会注意到他们的设计并不生动
you’ll notice they aren’t the most dynamic bunch.
吃豆人基本上是一个圆形
Pac-Man is basically just the circle.
这些设计是出于必要
These designs were made more of necessity
因而牺牲了部分美观
than for making a character look good.
古惑狼(实为袋狸)便是一个典型例子
A great example of this is Crash Bandicoot.
真正的袋狸并不是亮橘色
Real bandicoot aren’t bright orange.
但古惑狼被设计成橘色
But Crash was made orange,
可以使他在深色背景中更突出
so he’d stand out more against the dark colored backgrounds.
视频游戏的角色设计要与关卡设计相结合
Video game character design works in conjunction with level design.
当然也要考虑到你在设计时具备的技术
And of course what tech you have at your disposal at the time.
马里奥刚诞生时
When Mario was first created,
游戏和现在看起来并不一样
games didn’t look how they look now.
设计者用着8比特的电脑
Creators were working with 8-bit computers,
这意味着他们必须设计出独特的角色
meaning they had to find ways to make characters look unique
而不是一堆像素块
and not just a pile of pixels.
马里奥的设计者宫本茂解释了
Mario’s creator Miyamoto has explained
马里奥的形象设计
why Mario looks the way he does.
胡须和大鼻子可以清晰勾勒出脸部
The mustache and big nose were added to help define his face,
头发用8比特难以呈现 所以加了帽子
and the hat was added as his hair was hard to create in 8-bit.
宫本茂的另一个成功设计也热衷于戴帽子
Miyamoto’s other big creation is a keen hat wearer too,
或许下次我们可以讲讲他和他的公主
maybe more on him and his princess another time.
而粗布工作服让马里奥的胳膊
And the dungarees were added so Mario’s arms
和身体不至于混成一团像素块
and body didn’t mesh into one big lump of pixels.
使用这样的设计
The creativity that had to be used due to
主要是受技术条件限制
the lack of technology seems to be the key.
也达成了其目的
Mario’s design was a means to an end
玩家可以完全明白马里奥在屏幕上的动作
so players could completely understand what Mario was doing on the screen.
但这也让马里奥看起来很像意大利人
All of this led to Mario looking rather Italian.
我不知道在马里奥之前有关意大利人的刻板印象
I don’t know if that stereotype of Italians existed before Mario,
或者这是马里奥的独创
or if Mario pioneered it.
但如果谷歌搜索一下“意大利人的刻板印象”
But if you google “Italian stereotype”,
会出现很多胡须形象
mustaches are abound.
实际上 马里奥的形象
In fact it doesn’t take long for Mario himself to appear
在搜索结果中也排在前列
in Google Images when searching “Italian stereotype”.
这似乎也充分解释了
This might seem like a good enough reason
马里奥名字的来源
as to why he has that name.
看起来像意大利人 也被设计成意大利人
He looks Italian and is meant to be Italian.
所以有“马里奥”这个意大利名字也说得通
So an Italian name like Mario would work.
那有没有更加具体的理由呢?
Have we also have a much more concrete art to this too?
实际上马里奥是按照
In fact, we have a real Mario,
一个真实存在的马里奥命名的
the Super Mario is named after.
他叫马里奥·西加列
That being Mario Segale.
我之前说过
Like I said earlier,
任天堂想要让《大金刚》畅销美国
Nintendo wanted Donkey Kong to be a huge hit in the US,
事情确实如他们所愿
which it certainly was.
最后
And in the fallout of all this
任天堂在华盛顿州的西雅图设立总部
Nintendo set up an American HQ in Seattle, Washington,
租用了马里奥·西加列的一间仓库
renting a warehouse owned by Mario Segale.
有一天
The story goes that one day
西加列冲进仓库索要逾期的房租
Segale stormed into the building demanding overdue rent.
就在此刻 任天堂的员工才意识到
It was here the Nintendo employees realized
西加列长得与跳跃人有多像
how much Segale looked like their Jumpman.
他同样蓄着胡须
He had the mustache too.
正是由于愤怒咆哮的房东
It was thanks to the irate rant of the landlord
才使得跳跃人变成了马里奥
that Jumpman became Mario,
这个我们今日众所周知的名字
the name we all know him by today.
那马里奥为什么不起个日文名字呢?
So why doesn’t Mario have a Japanese name?
原因似乎错综复杂
It seems to be an amalgamation of a lot of things.
当然马里奥的设计和名字关联甚深
Of course Mario’s design and name seems to be very intertwined.
一个刻板的意大利形象拥有意大利名字
It makes sense for a stereotypically looking Italian character
合乎情理
to have an Italian name.
有意大利名字的人闯入他们的办公室
And the fact that someone barges their offices
这件事也像是因祸得福
with an Italian name seem like a blessing in disguise.
但我觉得马里奥叫这个名字还有另一个主要原因
However I think there is another key reason Mario is named what he is.
尽管马里奥是个日本角色 在日本受到喜爱
Despite being a Japanese character and beloved in Japan,
但是日本并不是他的目标市场
he wasn’t made with Japan in mind.
任天堂想要通过大金刚和跳跃人 在西方开辟市场
Nintendo wanted to take off in the West via Donkey Kong and Jumpman.
因此他们需要研究西方的设计
And to do this they have to look into Western design.
宫本茂甚至说过他喜欢西方漫画
Miyamoto has even stated that he enjoys Western comics.
在马里奥的设计中不难看出这一点
It’s not hard to see that in Mario’s design.
显而易见
It’s not a stretch to see the similarities
马里奥与阿斯特里克斯
between the likes of Mario and Asterix.
甚至阿道克船长都有相似之处
Or even Captain Haddock.
马里奥并不符合传统日本流行文化的标准
Mario doesn’t fit the conventions of traditional Japanese pop culture.
用外行话说:他看起来不太像动画人物
He’s not very anime-looking in layman’s terms.
我说过 起初《大金刚》想要设计成大力水手的游戏
Like I said, initially Donkey Kong was to be a Popeye game.
在跳跃人的一些早期设计中
And in some of Jumpman’s earliest designs
仍可以看到来自大力水手的灵感
you can still see that Popeye inspiration.
以西方市场为目标 便诞生了这一西方设计
With the West in mind, a Western design was created,
“跳跃人”也需要换成西方名字
with a Western name needing to replace Jumpman.
为了感激房东马里奥·西加列
And with thanks to their landlord Mario Segale,
名字便被定为“马里奥”
the name Mario was cemented.
正是这个拥有意大利名字的日本角色
And it’s that Italian name that belongs to a Japanese character
如今已为全世界人所熟悉
now known throughout the entire world.
要是房东叫路易基就好了
Now if only their landlord was called Luigi instead.
可怜的路易基
poor Luigi.
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Thank you.

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马里奥的意国渊源

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u9TQtgRm8gU

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