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为什么聚四氟乙烯不沾性这么强?

Why doesn’t anything stick to Teflon? - Ashwini Bharathula

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Light up the world
没有什么能困住黑手党老大约翰·高蒂
Nothing stuck to Mafia boss John Gotti
这些年 他通过贿赂陪审员以及威胁目击证人 逃避法律的制裁
who evaded justice for years by bribing and threatening jurors and witnesses.
这为他赢得了“聚四氟乙烯先生”的称号
That earned him the name the Teflon Don
源自世界上最滑的材料
after one of the slipperiest materials on Earth.
聚四氟乙烯被用于阿波罗船员登月时穿的宇航服中
Teflon was in the spacesuits the Apollo crew wore for the moon landing,
用于曼哈顿计划的管道和阀门中
in pipes and valves used in the Manhattan Project,
也许在你厨房的煎锅和烤板的不粘层也有
and maybe in your kitchen as the nonstick coating on frying pans and cookie sheets.
那么 这个滑滑的东西是什么 为什么不与别的东西相粘?
So what is this slippery solid, and why doesn’t anything stick to it?
Teflon是聚四氟乙烯的商标名称
Teflon is a brand name for polytetrafluoroethylene,
也写作 PTFE
or PTFE.
是于1938年 被一位27岁的美国化学家
It was stumbled upon accidentally in 1938 by a 27-year-old American chemist
罗伊·普凯特偶然发现的
named Roy Plunkett
当时他正尝试为一家化学公司杜邦【杜邦公司是一家以科研为基础的全球性企业】
while he was trying to develop a non-toxic refrigerant fluid for DuPont,
研发一种无毒的制冷液体
a chemicals company.
奇怪的是 他的实验器皿里形成了一种白色物质
The strange, white substance that formed inside his lab canister
呈化学惰性
was chemically inert,
这意味着它不会与任何其他物质反应
meaning it wouldn’t react with other substances.
它也有着极低的摩擦系数
It also had an extremely low coefficient of friction,
其它材料碰见它都会摔倒
making other materials slide right off it.
聚四氟乙烯的性质使它十分完美 当你需要一些滑的
Teflon’s properties make it perfect when you need something slippery,
耐化学反应的
chemical resistant,
或防水的东西
or waterproof,
这意味着它有很多应用
which means it has a lot of applications.
遍布全球
It can be found all over the place,
比如雨衣的涂层
as a coating on raincoats,
工业滚珠轴承
industrial ball bearings,
人工关节
artificial joints,
电路板
circuit boards,
甚至是丹佛国际机场群山峻岭般的屋顶
and even the Rocky Mountains-themed roof of the Denver International Airport.
聚四氟乙烯不可思议的性质来自于其分子结构
The incredible properties of PTFE come from its molecular structure.
它是一种聚合物
It’s a polymer,
由长链的重复单位的原子串在一起
meaning it’s made of long chains of repeating units of atoms strung together.
一个聚四氟乙烯链有一个碳原子主干
A PTFE chain has a backbone of carbon atoms,
每个连接到两个氟原子
each of which is attached to two fluorines.
氟原子像盔甲一样包围着碳原子
The fluorine atoms surround the carbon like armor,
盘旋成锁链的样子
spiraling around the chain,
碳氟原子之间的键相当紧【键 在化学结构中表示元素原子价的短横线 】
and the bond between carbon and fluorine is incredibly tight.
就像一对眼中只有彼此的恋人
Like a couple that ignores everyone except each other,
碳和氟间相互作用如此强烈
carbon and fluorine interact so strongly
以至于正常的分子间作用力
that the normal, intermolecular forces that help substances stick to each other
根本不起作用
don’t stand a chance.
甚至有名的壁虎粘性脚也无法抓紧它
Even the famously adhesive feet of geckos usually can’t get a grip.
等一下
But wait!
如果聚四氟乙烯与任何东西都不粘连
If PTFE doesn’t stick to anything,
为啥它能坚固地附在锅之类的东西上呢?
how can it be so firmly attached to something like a pan?
一种方法是对锅做喷砂处理
One method involves sandblasting the pan
或者用化学品腐蚀使其粗糙
or etching it with chemicals to make it rough.
然后 就用到了一种特殊的底漆 类似于胶水
Then, a special primer is applied, which acts like glue.
其确切成分是每个制造商保护的商业机密
Its exact composition is a trade secret guarded by each manufacturer.
聚四氟乙烯喷涂在锅表面
The pan is sprayed with liquid PTFE
加热到800华氏度左右
and heated to around 800 degrees Fahrenheit.
然后凝固成一个光滑的涂层
The layers then solidify into a smooth, slick coating.
当你在这个锅里做鸡蛋时
When you later cook eggs in this PTFE-coated pan,
碳氟原子之间的键
the extra tight carbon-fluorine bonds
会忽视鸡蛋里的水 脂肪 和蛋白质分子
just ignore the water and fat and protein molecules in the eggs.
没了这些相互反应
Without those interactions,
食物就不会粘在上面了
the food just slides around without sticking.
也许你会怀疑 在聚四氟乙烯涂层的锅里做饭是否安全
You might wonder if it’s safe to cook in a PTFE-coated pan.
答案是 如果你小心点 就会很安全
The answer is yes, if you’re careful.
在你煮鸡蛋和鱼的适度温度下 聚四氟乙烯是很稳定的
PTFE is stable at moderate temperatures, like you’d use to cook eggs or fish,
一旦高于500华氏度 它开始降解
but above 500 degrees Fahrenheit, it starts to degrade,
进一步加热 会释放出烟雾 让你感觉不舒服
and heating it further releases fumes that can make you feel sick.
在高温下 一个空盘可以快速达到500度
An empty pan can reach 500 degrees fast over high heat,
但大多数厨房通风良好 足以驱散烟雾
but most kitchens are ventilated well enough to dissipate the fumes.
过去人们还认为用聚四氟乙烯
People used to also think that accidentally consuming PTFE
修补有刮痕的锅对身体不好
that flaked off a scratched pan was bad for you,
但现在的的共识是 聚四氟乙烯无毒
but the current consensus is that it’s harmless.
因为它不与其他化学物质反应
Because PTFE doesn’t interact with other chemicals very well,
所以也不会在人体内分解
it isn’t thought to break down inside your body.
能否安全生产聚四氟乙烯则是另一个故事了
Whether it’s safe to manufacture Teflon is another story.
杜邦 和他的衍生公司科慕公司【科慕公司是全球化工巨头】
DuPont and its spin-off company Chemours
现在面临着数百万美金的诉讼
now face lawsuits worth millions of dollars.
他们被指控污染环境了几十年
They’ve been accused of polluting the environment for decades
以及让员工和当地社区暴露于
and exposing employees and local communities
有毒化学物质全氟辛酸的健康威胁下【全氟辛酸 一种人工合成的化学物质】
to health risks associated with a toxic chemical called PFOA.
这种化学物质会涉及聚四氟乙烯的制造过程
That chemical was involved in manufacturing Teflon.
至于约翰·高蒂
As for John Gotti,
这位黑帮老大于1992年被控犯有5项罪
in 1992, the Mob boss was finally convicted of five counts of murder,
在全部指控中
among other charges.
这促使纽约的联邦调查局局长宣布
That prompted the head of the FBI office in New York City to announce,
聚四氟乙烯是一去不复返了
“The Teflon is gone.
这个先生困于维可劳中 所有的罪名不可撤销【维可劳 一种尼龙搭扣的商业名称】
The don is covered in Velcro, and all the charges stuck.”

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视频概述

聚四氟乙烯(Teflon或PTFE),俗称“塑料王”,是由四氟乙烯经聚合而成的高分子化合物,具有优良的化学稳定性、耐腐蚀性、密封性、高润滑不粘性、电绝缘性和良好的抗老化耐力。你是否也好奇过这其中的具体原因呢?那就跟随视频动画一起来了解下吧。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uXaP43Zbz7U

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