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为什么长大后声音会改变?

Why does your voice change as you get older? - Shaylin A. Schundler

“言语的意思远远多于纸张上记录的内容
它需要人类的声音
为它们注入更深刻的意义”
—— 玛雅•安吉罗
.
在16世纪中期
In the mid-16th century,
意大利人为一种
Italians were captivated
男性歌手而着迷
by a type of male singer
他们令人难以置信的音域包含了
whose incredible range contained notes
之前对成年男性来说 不可能的音调
previously thought impossible for adult men.
但这一才能 需要付出高昂的代价
However, this gift came at a high price.
为了防止声音嘶哑
To prevent their voices from breaking,
这些歌手在青春期前 就已被阉割
these singers had been castrated before puberty,
停止了会使他们声音变低沉的激素过程
halting the hormonal processes that would deepen their voices.
这些人被称为阉人歌手
Known as castrati,
他们如天使般轻柔的歌声 享誉整个欧洲
their light, angelic voices were renowned throughout Europe,
直到19世纪 成为阉人歌手的残酷步骤
until the cruel procedure that created them
才被法律禁止
was outlawed in the 1800s.
尽管使嗓子发育迟缓
Though stunting vocal growth
可练就特别的音域
can produce an extraordinary musical range,
但自然发育的嗓音
naturally developing voices
已具备令人难以置信的多样性
are already capable of incredible variety.
随着年龄的增长
And as we age,
我们的身体要经历两次探索音域范围的重大变化
our bodies undergo two major changes which explore that range.
那么我们的喉咙究竟是怎样工作的
So how exactly does our voice box work,
而且导致这些语音变化的原因又是什么呢?
and what causes these shifts in speech?
语音的特定音色
The specific sound of a speaking voice
是许多结构上变化的结果
is the result of many anatomical variables,
但它主要取决于
but it’s mostly determined
声带的年龄和健康状况
by the age and health of our vocal cords
以及我们咽喉的大小
and the size of our larynxes.
咽喉是一个复杂的肌肉和软骨系统
The larynx is a complex systemof muscle and cartilage
用来支撑和移动声襞
that supports and moves the vocal cords,
也许 它们更为人们所熟知的是 “声带”
or, as they’re more accurately known, the vocal folds.
它悬挂在甲状腺和杓状软骨之间
Strung between the thyroid and arytenoid cartilages,
这两块肌肉形成一个弹性膜
these two muscles form an elastic curtain
用来打开和关闭气管
that opens and shuts across the trachea,
气管是通过咽喉传送空气的管道
the tube that carries air through the throat.
声带在我们呼吸时 分开
The folds are apart when we’re breathing,
说话时 合起来
but when we speak, they slam shut.
我们的肺将空气推向已关闭的声带
Our lungs push air against the closed folds,
将它们吹开
blowing them open
并振动这部分组织 发出声音
and vibrating the tissue to produce sound.
不像让外界乐器发出声响时那样
Unlike the deliberate focus
需要特意关注
required for playing an external instrument,
我们在说话时 可以轻松自如地改变音调
we effortlessly change notes as we speak.
通过更快或更慢地推送空气
By pushing air faster or slower,
改变这些振动的频率和幅度
we change the frequency and amplitude of these vibrations,
它们会分别转化为声音的音高
which respectively translate to the pitch
和音量
and volume of our voices.
快速并小幅度的振动
Rapid and small vibrations
会产生高音 平和的声调
create high-pitched, quiet tones,
而缓慢且大幅度的振动
while slow, large vibrations
会产生深沉的低吼声
produce deep bellowing rumbles.
最后 通过移动软骨之间的喉部肌肉
Finally, by moving the laryngeal musclesbetween the cartilages,
我们可以拉伸和收缩声带
we can stretch and contract those folds
凭直觉演奏“我们体内的乐器”
to intuitively play our internal instruments.
从你的第一句话到最后一句
This process is the same
这个过程是一样的
from your first words to your last,
但随着年龄的增长
but as you age,
你的咽喉也会老化
your larynx ages too.
在青春期
During puberty,
随着你的嗓音开始变低沉
the first major shift starts,
第一次重大转变就开始了
as your voice begins to deepen.
当你的喉咙变大
This happens when your larynx grows in size,
声带拉长
elongating the vocal folds
并为其提供更大的振动空间时 这种情况就会发生
and opening up more room for them to vibrate.
这些较长声带的振动速度较慢 幅度较大
These longer folds have slower, larger vibrations,
因此产生了较低的基础音高
which result in a lower baseline pitch.
这种成长在许多男性中尤为明显
This growth is especially dramaticin many males,
其睾丸激素水平的升高
whose high testosterone levels
首先导致声音嘶哑
lead first to voice cracks,
然后变成更加低沉有力的声音
and then to deeper, more booming voices,
而且显现出被称为“喉结”的突起部分
and laryngeal protrusions called Adam’s apples.
当覆盖声带的同质组织
Another vocal development during puberty
专门进入三个不同功能层时
occurs when the homogenous tissuecovering the folds
另一次青春期的嗓音发育就开始了
specializes into three distinctfunctional layers:
三个功能层包括:中心肌肉层
a central muscle,
包裹在弹性蛋白纤维中的
a layer of stiff collagen
硬胶原蛋白层
wrapped in stretchy, elasting fibers.
以及粘膜外层
and an outer layer of mucus membrane.
这几层为嗓音增添了细微差别和浑厚度
These layers add nuanceand depth to the voice,
使其具有独特的音色
giving it a distinct timbre
使其与青春期前的音色区别开来
that sets it apart for its pre-pubecsent tones.
青春期过后
After puberty,
大多数人的嗓音在大约50年内
most people’s voices remain more or less the same
或多或少都会保持不变
for about 50 years.
但我们都在以不同的方式使用着自己的嗓音
But we all use our voices differently,
而且最终我们会遇到
and eventually we experience the symptoms
与喉咙衰老有关的症状
associated with aging larynxes,
被称为咽喉老化性萎缩
known as presbyphonia.
首先 我们声带中的胶原蛋白变硬
First, the collagen in our folds stiffens
周围的弹性蛋白纤维开始萎缩并衰退
and the surrounding elastin fibersatrophy and decay.
这种柔韧性的减退
This decreased flexibility
会提高长大后声音的音高
increases the pitch of older voices.
但对于经历了更年期激素反应的人来说
But for people who have experienced the hormonal effects of menopause,
较高的音高会被肿胀的声带
the higher pitch is counteredand outweighed
抵消并被盖过
by swollen vocal folds.
声带质量的增加 会减缓其振动
The folds’ increased mass slows theirvibrations,
从而产生更低沉的声音
resulting in deeper voices.
所有这些症状会由于
All these symptoms are further complicated
健康喉部神经末梢的减少而进一步复杂化
by having fewer healthy laryngeal nerve endings,
这会降低肌肉控制的准确性
which reduces precise muscle control
引起喘息声或嘶哑声
and causes breathy or rough voices.
最终 这些结构上的变化
Ultimately, these anatomical changes
只是几个会影响你嗓音的因素
are just a few of the factors that can affect your voice.
但是 保养良好时
But when kept in good condition,
你的喉咙就是一个微调好的乐器
your voice box is a finely tuned instrument,
能唱歌剧咏叹调
capable of operatic arias,
朗诵忧郁的独白 还能做煽情的演讲
moody monologues, and stirring speeches.
在TED教育
At TedEd,
我们相信 分享“学生之声”的时间
we believed that the time to share student voices
永远都是现在
is always now.
而且每个学生都有值得传播的想法
And that every student has an idea worths spreading.
想更多地了解“学生之声计划”
Find out more about our student voice program,
请到ed.ted.com/clubs 加入我们吧
and get involved at ed.ted.com/clubs.

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视频概述

了解青春期变声的原因

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

昵伊荙

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rjibeBSnpJ0

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