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为什么喝葡萄酒嘴会觉得干?

Why Does Wine Make Your Mouth Feel Dry?

大家好 我是Minute Eaeth的Emily
Hi, this is Emily from Minute Earth.
你有过那样的感觉吗:当你咬了一口生梨子或者生香蕉 又或者吃了太多的
You know that feeling you get when you bite into an unripe pear or banana, munch on too
核桃 或是喝了红酒 在这之后你的嘴巴变得干燥 粗糙而且皱皱的?
many walnuts, or sip red wine, and your mouth gets dry, rough, and puckery?
有这个感觉说明你的嘴巴暂时“皮革化”了
That feeling is your mouth temporarily turning into leather.
在制作皮革的漫长又复杂的过程中 有一个核心步骤名字叫做“鞣制”
We make real leather through a long and complex process, with a central step called “”tanning””,
在这个步骤中我们将动物的皮与一种植物材料一起浸入水中
in which we soak animal skin in water along with plant material.
如果我们取下动物的外皮之后不去鞣制 饥饿的细菌就会释放出酶
If we took skin off an animal and didn’t tan it, hungry bacteria would release enzymes
使得外皮里主要的胶原蛋白变得容易被分解 这样会导致外皮
that cut the skin’s main protein – collagen – into digestible bits, essentially causing
腐烂
it to rot.
但当我们在外皮腐烂之前对其进行鞣制 在鞣制过程中会有一种叫丹宁酸的物质从植物中渗透出来
But when we tan the skin before it can rot, chemicals called tannins leak from the plants
并会与胶原蛋白结合 阻止了酶与蛋白的反应 这样我们就获得了抗腐的
and bond to the collagen, blocking the sites the enzymes could cut, and giving us rot-resistant
皮革
leather.
但是植物中的丹宁酸并不是为了人类能获得长效防护服装而存在的
But plants don’t make tannins so that humans can have long-lasting, protective clothing.
相反 他们产生丹宁酸的部分原因是为了保护自己避免被吃掉
Instead, they make them partly to protect themselves from getting eaten.
这部分就是吃到你嘴巴里的东西
Which brings us back to your mouth.
当一头小鹿……或者一个人类……吃了一片叶子 在那些植物体内用于保护
When a deer… or a human… eats a leaf, the protein-bonding tannins in those plant
就会附着在我们的唾液 舌头 还有脸颊上的蛋白质中并且
parts latch onto the slippery proteins in our saliva and on our tongues and cheeks and
使得它们聚合在一起产生化学反应 令我们产生一种干燥 粗糙的
cause them to stick together in a tangled mess, giving us the dry, rough feeling of
“皮革舌”的感觉
a tanned tongue.
许多动物都学到过如何避免吃到那些会使舌头皮革化的植物 但是我们人类
Some animals learn to avoid plants that are particularly tongue-tanning, but we humans,
很多都是辛辣 苦涩和腐臭食物的爱好者 他们喜欢这样的感觉——
lovers of spicy, bitter, and rotten foods, have actually come to like this feeling – in
当然是适度的——所以我们寻找着含有丹宁酸的食物 像是葡萄 石榴 胡桃
moderation – so we seek out foods that contain tannins, like grapes, pomegranates, pecans,
巧克力 咖啡还有茶
chocolate, coffee, and tea.
但是如果我们食用过量 我们的嘴巴里的蛋白酶就会发生反应使得嘴巴变得麻痹 这种摩擦
But if we overdo it, our mouths’ slippery proteins get so tangled that the friction
让嘴巴会非常不舒服
becomes really uncomfortable.
幸运的是 这种丹宁酸和蛋白酶的结合是暂时的 这意味着“皮革舌”——
Luckily, the bonds between tannins and proteins are temporary, meaning that a tanned tongue
只是像一块刚刚经历了鞣制的动物外皮还没有完成余下的
– just like a freshly-tanned animal skin that hasn’t yet gone through the rest of the
的制作过程——还没被皮革化
leather-making process – can be un-tanned.
只需要时间让你的嘴巴去制作足够的新唾液去稀释丹宁酸然后带走
Just wait for your mouth to create enough new saliva to dilute the tannins and carry
它们
them away.
又或者 在喝茶和咖啡时往里加入些牛奶或是吃葡萄的时候与奶酪同吃——这样
Or, drink your tea and coffee with milk and eat your grapes with cheese – the tannins
丹宁酸就会与牛奶中的蛋白质结合 而不是和你口腔中的蛋白酶结合 使你的嘴巴顺滑且不干燥
will bond to the milk’s proteins, instead of yours, leaving your mouth smooth and leather-free.
这期关于丹宁酸的讲解是由Squarespace为你带来的
This tannin-talizing episode was brought to you by Squarespace.
使用他们简单的工具和模板 我们刚为MinuteEarth制作了一个新的网页
Using their simple tools and templates, we just made a new internet home for MinuteEarth.
你仍然能在油管上找到我们的视频 但是在minuteearth.com你现在就能找到
You can still find our videos on Youtube, but on minuteearth.com you’ll now find answers
一些经常被问到的问题的答案 还能看到MinuteEarth主创人员的卡通画像
to frequently asked questions and be able to meet the stick figures who bring you MinuteEarth.
在Squrespace一站式平台上 你可以拥有一个独一无二的域名 也可以创造一个漂亮的
With Squarespace’s all-in-one platform, you too can claim a unique domain, create a beautiful
网页 并且从不需要安装 下载补丁或是更新任何东西
website, and never have to install, patch, or upgrade anything—ever.
访问Squarespace.com/minuteearth并使用“EARTH”代码可以获得10%的折扣
Go to Squarespace.com/minuteearth and use the code “EARTH” for 10% off.
感谢收看 这里是 Squarespace!
Thanks, Squarespace!

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译制信息
视频概述

主要讲述了嘴巴干燥的罪魁祸首——丹宁酸,以及解决办法

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

【MR】Naval

审核员

译学馆审核团D

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GOZWV2XxuhA

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