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车祸瞬间为什么时间会变慢?

Why Does Time Slow Down During Car Accidents?

科学秀由技能分享社区支持
SciShow is supported by Skillshare.
[序曲]
[♪INTRO]
即便你从未看过《黑客帝国》
Even if you ’ ve never seen The Matrix,
你也可能至少熟悉其中一个经典场景
you might be familiar with at least one classic scene.
在电影当中 一个枪手试图对主角尼奥开枪
In the movie, a gunman attempts to shoot the main character Neo,
尼奥却突然意识到
only for Neo to suddenly
他能让时间变慢
realize that he can slow down time.
子弹速度开始变缓
The bullets crawl by,
然后主角随意的走开 就避免了死亡
and the protagonist casually bends out of the way and avoids death.
这个所谓的子弹时刻可能仅仅是科幻小说当中的场景
This so-called “ bullet time ” might only be science fiction,
但现实中的人们
but people do experience
的确也能经历相似的事情
something similar.
这被称为时间膨胀
It ’ s called time dilation,
或紧急情况下 时间的变慢
or a slowing of time during really intense situations.
从车祸到枪战到
Everything from car accidents to gun
吓人的容貌等都可能诱发这种现象
fire to images of scary faces can trigger this phenomenon,
然而关键是
but what ’ s tricker is
弄清楚那种情况下大脑里面发生了什么
figuring out what ’ s actually happening in our brains.
目前为止 研究人员虽然并不十分确定
So far, researchers aren ’ t totally sure,
但的确已经有了一些想法
but they do have a few ideas.
一个观点认为时间膨胀
One idea is that time dilation is caused
是由于你的大脑 努力接受尽可能多的信息引起的
by your brain trying to take in as much information as possible.
根据一些研究
According to some studies,
大脑从你的感官收集少量的信息
your brain collects bits of information from your senses and uses
并且利用它们形成一个生物钟
them to establish an internal clock.
处理的信息越多 生物钟就走的越慢
The more information it processes, the moreslowly that clock goes.
例如 专业的棒球运动员
For example, professional baseball players —
上场时会集中精神
who are hyper-focused and are taking in
并且密切注意场上情况
a lot of details when they ’ re up to bat —
常会感觉球在他们碰到之前速度变缓
often say the ball slows down right before they hit it.
在实验室里也有这种现象
That ’ s been demonstrated in the lab, too:
一份2012年的研究显示
One 2012 study showed that, when 11 participants
当十一个参与者准备做一个特定动作时
prepped for a specific action,
他们察觉非常快的视觉信号的能力得到提升
their ability to detect extremely fast visual signals improved.
这一理论也能够解释
This idea could also explain why
为什么时间延缓这一现象在诸如车祸等
time dilation is so commonly reported in life-threatening situations,
危及生命的关头会如此普遍
like car accidents.
在这些案例中
In these cases,
大脑或许在努力去尽其所能地多获取信息
the brain is probably trying to pick up as much info as it can in an effort
以此保证个人的安全
to keep someone safe.
毕竟 那一迅速的处理能让人预先准备好
After all, that speedy processing could prepare
提前做一些改变
them to make some change — like throwing
例如舍弃手以活命
up their hands — that would keep them alive.
当然 从来没有过这种实验室的研究
Of course, there haven ’ t been lab studies
因为如果你将课题置于
of this, because if you tried to put your
危及生命的情况下
subjects in life-threatening situations,
道德协会可能就来警告你了
you ’ d have an ethics committee kicking down your door.
但是总的来说 受刺激情况下的这一现象是有证据证明的
But there is evidence for the phenomenon in simulations and as a whole. Still,
然而并不是所有的研究都认同
not all studies agree with this.
例如 2007年公共科学图书馆
For example, a paper published in 2007
发表的一份文件讲到那种情况下大脑运行速度并没有加快
in PLOS One says that there ’ s no increase in
时间变慢只不过是一种扭曲的记忆
brain processing and that the illusion of time is just a twisted memory.
在实验中 研究人员在20个志愿者身上放了感知计时器
In this experiment, researchers strapped 20volunteers with perceptual chronometers.
这些是被设计来
These were devices programmed to flash
在图片和底片之间闪光的设备
between an image and its negative so quickly that
速度飞快近不可见
it would be unreadable.
除非你的视觉能力提升才能看见
That is, unless your visual processing wasincreased.
研究团队将参与者从30米的高处
The research team then dropped participants into a net
扔进一个网里
from a height of about 30 meters.
该项目绝对安全
The subjects were totally safe,
但下落过程让人有濒死的感觉
but the drop was perceived as deadly enough to trigger
用以诱发时间延迟
time dilation.
当然 当他们返回地面后
Sure enough, once they were back on the ground,
发现估计的下落时间
subjects estimated that the drop took about
比实际时长35%
35% longer than it actually did. So,
那么实验是结束了吗 其实并没有
case closed, right? Well, not really. Because,
纵使面临危及生命的刺激
even with the seemingly life-threateningstimuli, the participants still weren’t
参与者仍然不能读取计时器
able to read the chronometers.
因此时间延迟看上去
So it looked like time dilation wasn ’
并不是由于大脑反应速度变快导致的
t actually due to increased brain speed.
因此实验并没有结束
Something else had to be going on.
科学家认为大脑或许在事后才会拉长时间
The scientists suggested that maybe our brains are stretching out time after the fact.
换句话说 只有当你回忆事情的时候才会感觉变慢了
In other words, things only feel slower whenyou remember them.
现如今
Right now, though,
虽然在大脑里面产生时间延迟这一现象的原因仍然存在很多争论
the debate over what causes time dilation in our brains is still ongoing.
好消息是
The good news is,
更多的研究开始关注这一现象背后的
more research is starting to look at specific neurotransmitters and
神经传导物质和神经性原因
neurological causes that could be behind this phenomenon,
但直到现在 对此仍众说纷纭
but so far, the jury is out.
即使《黑客帝国》里面的子弹时间
Now,even though the “ bullet time ”
只存在于科幻小说当中
in The Matrix is science fiction, someone had to make
一些人却使其在银幕上面栩栩如生
it look real on screen.
为了制作科学秀视频
To make SciShow videos,
我们总是精益求精并且努力学习新东西
we ’ re always honing our skills as videomakers and trying to learn
这也是我们使用科学分享社区的原因
new things, which is why we use Skillshare.
他们拥有超过2万个学科分类
They have over 20,000 classes that
覆盖了广泛的话题 例如
cover a wide range of topics like motion graphics
动态影像和角色动画
and character animation.
这儿总是有各种新奇好玩的事等着我们去发现
There’s always something fun and new topractice!
其中有一个由DKNG工作室
A good one to check out might be this one
制作的掌握插图
by DKNG Studios called Mastering Illustrator:
十个方法技巧帮你提高工作效率
10 Tips & Tricks to Speed Up Your Workflow.
或者我们在库尔兹的朋友有两套
Or our friends at Kurzgesagt have a 2 parts series
令人惊奇的动态影像
on Motion Graphics that ’ s pretty amazing.
如果你是一个视频制作者或者只是爱好学习
If you ’ re a video creator or just enjoy learning,
技能分享社区将会免费为科学秀的观众
Skillshare is offering SciShow viewers
提供两个月的技能分享
2 months of Skillshare for FREE!
要了解这两万多种课程
To get access to over 20,000 classes,
请在下方的链接中注册
sign up at the link in the description.
并且在评论区告诉我们你想上的课程
And let us know what class you want to take in the comments!
结尾曲
[♪OUTRO]

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车祸瞬间时间变慢

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小恐龙

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审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ktiYjs1KSHo

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