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为什么这只青蛙有那么多腿?! – 译学馆
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为什么这只青蛙有那么多腿?!

Why Does This Frog Have So Many Legs?!

有个谜语:一只青蛙有几条腿呢
Here’s a riddle: How many legs does a frog have?
这完全取决于它被哪种寄生虫感染
That all depends on which parasites infect it.
我是Anna 这里是《重口味科学》
I’m Anna and this is Gross Science.
北美洲有一种寄生扁形虫 它们在
Throughout North America there’s a parasitic flatworm, that makes its home in the digestive
水鸟的消化系统里安家落户
systems of water birds.
鸟的食道是这些家伙的天堂 它们在这里寻找配偶
A bird’s esophagus is a great place for these guys—that’s where they find mates,
交配 然后产出成千上万的卵 这些卵穿过消化道
have sex, and pop out thousands of eggs.The eggs move through the digestive tract, and
等到鸟儿在水中排泄时 就孵化成寄生虫的幼虫 并去寻找新的家园
when the bird poops in freshwater, the eggs hatch and the baby parasites look for a new home.
但要找到一个长有羽毛的新朋友可不太容易
But finding a new feathered friend isn’t so easy.
寄生虫需要穿过两种其他动物的身体 并经历四种不同的生命阶段
The parasite will need to travel through two other animals and go through four different
才能找到另一只鸟并在其身上安营扎寨
life stages before it find another bird and settle down.
第一站就是淡水蜗牛
The first stop is a freshwater snail.
当它找到一只蜗牛时 就会侵入其组织并转入幼虫期
When it finds one, the parasite will invade the snail’s tissues, turn into the next
在蜗牛的生殖器官里胡吃海喝
larval stage, and eat away at the snail’s reproductive organs
并在这一过程中将其阉割
castrating it in the process.
同时进行无性繁殖 进入下一生命阶段
There it also multiplies asexually, and enters yet another life stage, turning the snail
将蜗牛变成了一个移动的寄生虫工厂
into a mobile parasite factory.
最后 这群寄生虫从蜗牛体内游走 去寻找下一个宿主
Eventually, these hordes of parasites swim out of the snail in search of their next host
蝌蚪
– a tadpole.
一旦找到了蝌蚪 幼虫就会集中从它的后肢芽穿透进入其组织
Once a tadpole is found, the larvae start to penetrate its tissue focusing on the hind
而后肢芽最终会长成青蛙的后腿
limb buds—that’s where the developing frog’s back legs will eventually grow.
幼虫会长出坚硬的保护层 称为“囊肿” 而这就是
The larvae grow a hard, protective coating called a “cyst”, and this is where things
最令人恶心的地方
get really gross.
这些寄生虫的囊肿中断了正常的肢体形成 一旦变形 青蛙腿的数量
These parasitic cysts interrupt proper limb formation, causing the frogs to have an unusual
就会变得异乎寻常—数目从0到10不等
number of legs once they metamorphose— anywhere from zero to ten!
这些怪异的青蛙被鸟吃掉时 寄生虫最后进入了成年期
And when these froggy monstrosities get eaten by birds, the parasites finally become adults
一个生命周期又开始了
and the life cycle starts all over again.
我发现最有趣的是青蛙奇怪的肢体发育
Now, the thing I find most interesting about this is that the frog’s weird limb development
不仅仅是寄生虫感染的副作用
isn’t just a side effect of the parasitic infection.
科学家们认为 使青蛙拥有多条腿或肢体残缺
Scientists think that causing frogs to have multiple, or even missing legs, is actually
其实对寄生虫是有利的
advantageous for the parasite.
操纵宿主的形态—换句话说 改变它的外观——只是一个策略
Manipulating a host’s morphology – in other words, how it looks – is just one strategy
是寄生虫生存的手段
that parasites use to survive.
腿的数量不正常的青蛙比那些有四条腿的同类移动的更慢
Frogs that have an unusual number of limbs move more slowly than their four legged counterparts,
这就使它们更容易被鸟儿捕捉
and that makes them easier for birds to catch.
这当然增大了寄生虫最终出现在
Which of course makes it more likely that the parasite will end up exactly where it
其心意所属之地的可能性 进入鸟儿的食道 与同伴一起生活
wants to be, inside a bird’s esophagus, surrounded by mates.
说真的 这不正是我们所有人都想要的吗
And really, isn’t that what we all want in life?
好恶心啊
Ew.

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重口味科学告诉你多腿青蛙的秘密,虽然有点重口但还是很有意思

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jameschan

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启点—飞雪群山

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J-bAKh_dYls

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