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纽约为什么那么臭? – 译学馆
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纽约为什么那么臭?

Why Does New York City Smell So Bad? - Cheddar Explains

“I stopped at Lexington Avenue
“我在列克星敦大街停了下来
and bought a peach and stood on a corner eating it.
买了个桃子 站在街角处吃着
I could taste the peach and feel the soft air
我品尝着桃子 感受着地铁的
blowing from a subway grating on my legs.
微风抚过我的大腿
I could smell lilac and garbage and expensive perfume”.
我能闻到丁香花 垃圾和昂贵香水的气味”
That’s Joan Didion describing the beginning of her love affair with New York.
这是Joan Didion描述她与纽约恋情的开始
Here’s E•B•White taking a walk on a summer night through the Lower East Side.
一个夏夜 E•B•怀特在下东区漫步时说道
I head east along Rivington.
“我沿着里文顿街向东走
All is cheerful and filthy and crowded.
一切都显得生机勃勃但又肮脏 拥挤
It is folksy here with the smell of warm flesh
这里人流潺动 充斥着各种味道 人们的体味
and squashed fruit and fly bitten filth in the gutter and cooking.
踩烂的水果味 阴沟里蚊虫叮咬的腐物味 还有煮饭的香味”
Notice the old factory details?
留意到老工厂的细节了吗?
New York City is and always has been a smelly city.
纽约一直都是个臭气熏天的城市
Today, Google is full of questions like,
如今 谷歌充满了这类问题
“Why does New York City smells so bad,
“为什么纽约市里那么难闻?
Why does New York City smell like pee?”
为什么纽约市闻起来像小便?”
Well, there are 27,000 people per square mile in New York City.
纽约市每平方英里有27000人
These individuals sweat, cook and of course produce trash
这些人出汗 做饭 当然还会产生垃圾
and the scent that really hits the hardest on a hot August afternoon in the city
在八月炎热的午后 城里最难闻的味道
is the smell of roasting garbage.
莫过于烤焦的垃圾味
New York City’s residential trash, adds up to about 7,000 tons a day.
纽约市每天的生活垃圾加起来大约有7000吨
Walk down any residential street on trash pickup day,
在垃圾收集日走上任何一条住宅区街道
and you have to thread your way among giant garbage bergs.
你不得不在成堆的垃圾山中穿梭
Mounds of residential waste piled along the curb spilling over onto the sidewalk.
路边堆积如山的生活垃圾溢出人行道
That helps answer the questions about the smell,
解释了臭味的来源
but this urban wasteland bags are another question:
同时这些垃圾袋又引出另一个问题
“Why does New York City pile its garbage on the sidewalk?”
“为什么纽约市民把垃圾堆在人行道上?”
New Yorkers put their trash out on the street and sidewalks
市民把垃圾倒在大街上和人行道上
because there aren’t alleyways where it can be stored out of the way in big bins.
是因为没有小巷子来放大垃圾桶
So why doesn’t New York City have alleys?
那么为什么纽约市没有小巷子?
The answer to that has to do with how the city’s grid was drawn.
这个问题的答案与城市的规划布局有关
It is also like so many other New York City Stories about real estate.
就像许多其它纽约市的房地产故事一样
The Big Apple started out as a Dutch trading post on the very southern tip of the island.
纽约最初是作为荷兰人在该岛最南端的一个贸易站
It was a jumble of haphazard meandering streets.
这是一堆杂乱无章的街道
Landowners were left to their own devices to build streets where it suited them.
地主只能依赖自己的装备在适合的地方修建街道
There was no formal city planning.
没有正式的城市规划
There also wasn’t yet any formal plan for sanitation
也没有正式的公共卫生规划
and let the record show people from other cities have been dogging
记录显示自纽约建立以来
New York for being trashy since it’s inception.
其他城市的人就一直吐槽它的脏乱不堪
In 1697, a doctor from Boston wrote of Manhattan,
1697年 一位来自波士顿的医生这么描写曼哈顿
“Their streets are nasty and unregarded.”
“他们的街道脏乱不堪 无人问津”
By this point, just after the Revolutionary War,
这个时候革命战争刚刚结束
the city was experiencing a huge population boom and was trying to organize itself.
该城市人口激增 并试图进行自我规划
They’d created a health commission, hired some street sweepers,
他们创建了健康委员会 雇了街道清洁工
and started naming and numbering the 90 or so existing streets.
开始为已有的90多条街道编号和命名
As the population increased and the economy started to take off,
随着人口增长 经济也开始腾飞
city leaders began to realize there was a profit to be made.
城市领导人开始意识到有利可图
The problem? Compared even with Paris and London,
问题是 即便与巴黎和伦敦相比
randomly built New York with it’s narrow, crooked streets
随意建造的纽约那狭窄弯曲的街道
and few and shabby public buildings
和极少的破旧不堪的公共建筑
was the ridicule of strangers and all persons of taste.
仍然遭到陌生人和所有有识之士的嘲笑
The state legislature appointed three men as commissioners
州立法机关任命了三名专员
and gave them exclusive power to lay out streets roads and public squares
赋予他们专有权去布置街道和公共广场
of such width, extent and direction as to them shall seem most conducive to public good.
包括街道道路的宽度 范围和方向 保证其最有利于公众
The commissioners were Gouverneur Morris, a Founding Father,,
三位专员分别是创始人Gouverneur Morris
John Rutherfurd, a former US senator
前美国参议员John Rutherfurd
and the New York State surveyor general, Simeon De Witt.
以及纽约州测绘局长Simeon De Witt
The only instructions they were given were that
他们得到的唯一指令是
the avenues should be at least 60 feet wide and that other streets should be at least 50 feet wide.
大道至少要宽60英尺 其他街道至少要宽50英尺
They were given four years to survey the 13 mile, 11,000 acre island
他们有四年时间来勘测这座长达13英里 面积达1.1万英亩的岛屿
and they weren’t required to give any progress reports in the interim.
期间不需要提供任何进度报告
We do know based on their letters that by November of 1810,
从他们在1810年11月的通信我们得知
with only four months until their report was due,
离提交报告只有四个月时间时
the commissioners still had not settled on a plan.
专员们都还没制定出任何计划
And yet in 1811 they presented what would become the Manhattan grid you see today.
然而他们在1811年就提交了规划图 也就是今天的曼哈顿布局图
In a way, it’s funny that
在一定程度上说来好笑
the grid has been so lauded as
曼哈顿布局居然被誉为
the most courageous act of prediction in Western civilization,
是西方文明中最大胆的预测
and the best manifestation of American pragmatism in the creation of urban form.
是美国实用主义在城市形态创造中的最佳体现
Because the 1811 commissioners’ plan seems to
因为1811年版的专员规划图似乎
have been largely borrowed from an earlier grid,
很大程度上借鉴于早期的城市布局图
and that earlier grid wasn’t meant to be a master city plan.
而早期的城市规划并非为一座大城市设计
It was drawn to help New York City make money.
它的目的是帮助纽约市赚钱
In the 1790’s after the Revolutionary War,
革命战争之后的18世纪90年代
the growing city needed revenue.
不断发展的城市需要财政收入
So its leaders decided to sell off the land it owned,
因此城市领导人决定卖掉它所拥有的土地
thirteen hundred acres in central Manhattan,
即曼哈顿中心那块1300英亩的土地
about 9% of the total area of the island.
约占全岛面积的9%
In 1794, the city hired surveyor Casimir Goerck to
1794年 市政府聘请了土地测量员Casimir Goerck
divide the common lands into parcels that could be auctioned off.
将公有土地分割成可以拍卖的地块
Goerck was instructed to create five acre plots
Goerck收到指示以5英亩为单位规划地块
and to make sure each plot had road access.
并且确保每个地块都通公路
He divided the common lands into 212 lots.
他将公有土地分为212块
Each lot was five acres and had street access on at least two sides.
每个地块占地5英亩 至少两侧都有街道
According to Gerard Koeppel, the historian
历史学家Gerard Koeppel
who wrote the book on the Development of Manhattan’s Grid,
写了一本关于曼哈顿布局变迁的书
Goerck’s map is the genesis of the 1811 grid,
他说Goerck的规划图就是1811年版曼哈顿布局的来源
and the city’s own Landmarks Preservation Commission said in a report that
该市的地标保护委员会在一份报告中指出
commissioners plan, borrowed heavily from Goerck’s earlier surveys
专员规划图大量借鉴了Goerck的早期调查
and essentially expanded his scheme beyond the common lands to encompass the entire island.
实际上就是把他的规划从那片共有土地扩展到整个岛屿
Now let’s get back to alleys,
现在我们再来说小巷
Goerck didn’t include alleys in his plan because he wasn’t planning a city,
Goerck没设计小巷 因为他不是做城市规划
he was dividing up a large tract of land so that it could be sold to private owners.
他只是分割大片土地 以便能卖给私人业主
The Commissioners Plan of 1811 the one that became the Manhattan grid we have today,
1811年版专员规划图 也就是今天的曼哈顿布局
didn’t include alleys because well,
也没有设计小巷是因为
the commissioners hastily copied that common lands map of 1794.
专员们匆忙复制了1794年的公用土地地图
Or as the curator of New York City’s Tenement Museum once wrote,
或者如纽约市物业博物馆馆长曾经写道
“Above all, the commissioners sought to level Manhattan’s natural landscape
“最重要的是 专员们试图让曼哈顿的自然景观平均分布
and bring every inch of the city into productive use
通过系统化和标准化促进土地的销售和分配
by facilitating the sale and distribution of land through a systemic standardization.”
让城市的每一寸土地都得到有效利用”
Or as the urban planning scholar Peter Marcuse puts it,
或者如城市规划学者Peter Marcuse所说
“The commissioner’s grid is a plane of real estate development
“专员规划图是一个地产开发平面图
instead of a textured urban form
而不是一个有纹理的城市形态
and is one of the worst city plans of any major city in the developed countries of the world.”
它是发达国家大城市中最糟糕的城市规划之一”
Today the New York Department of Sanitation operates a fleet of 2500 trucks
今天 纽约市卫生局管理着2500辆卡车的车队
and performs a truly impressive feat in keeping the city from drowning in trash.
在防止城市被垃圾淹没方面的壮举真是令人印象深刻
There are even proposals floating around to take a page from
甚至不乏有人提议
Barcelona’s playbook with communal dumpsters on each block
借鉴巴塞罗那的做法 在每个街区设置公用垃圾箱
or Sweden’s with pneumatic tubes and underground storage.
或者学习瑞典安装通风管道和地下仓库
Next time you get a whiff of old hot gar-barge,
下次你要是闻到一股老式热汽油船的味道
you can think those procrastinating 1800’s commissioners.
你就怪那些19世纪初的拖拖拉拉的专员们吧
Thanks for watching.
谢谢观看
Hit the comments to talk all things grids and garbage.
欢迎评论区交流所有关于城市规划和垃圾处理的问题
If you liked this video,
如果喜欢本视频
hit subscribe and hit the bell icon
点击订阅和铃铛图标
so you’re notified next time Cheddar puts out a new video.
下次切达发布新视频 您将会收到提示
Thanks again and we’ll see you next time.
再次感谢 下次见

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视频概述

纽约为什么这么臭?怪200年前的城市规划。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VrSSUGCaVMc

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