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为什么大自然让你感觉更好 – 译学馆
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为什么大自然让你感觉更好

Why Does Nature Make You Feel Better?

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[♪ INTRO ]
众所周知 自然对我们的精神健康有益
It ’ s probably no surprise that nature is beneficial to our mental health.
无论是去海滩
From hitting the beach,
还是在公园里散步 大量研究表明
to taking a long stroll through the park, multiple studies have shown
大自然中某种物质使我们更开心
that there ’ s something about nature that helps us feel happier,
精神更集中 或是感觉更好
more focused, or just generally better.
但其中原因却难以解释
But why that happens is trickier to figureout.
心理学家认为
From what psychologists can tell, though,
这并不是因为阳光
it ’ s not just about getting in some sunshine
或维他命D 而是
and Vitamin D. Instead,
很有可能与我们的归属感有关
it might have to do with our sense of belonging.
大自然拥有治愈力 这并不新奇
The idea that nature is healing isn ’ t a new one,
长期以来 接触大自然
and exposure to natural environments
就是精神健康治疗的重要项目
has been an important part of mental health treatments for a long time.
早在中世纪
As early as the Middle Ages,
治疗精神疾病的修道院就创造了
monasteries for those with mental illnesses created so-called
疗养花园
restorative gardens.
18世纪
And in the 1800s,
设计精神病医院的工作者就尽可能使
people designing mental hospitals would try and make sure their buildings
建筑物周围覆盖大片自然植被
were surrounded by acres of natural land.
至今 现代研究也证实了这样的观点
So far, modern research really supports thisidea, too.
研究证明 接触大自然
Studies have shown that being exposed to nature —
不管是野外还是
whether it ’ s a wilderness preserve or
种满树木的城市街道 不管是否
a tree-lined city street — can improve wellbeing
有临床条件 在一定程度上能
in a bunch of ways, both in those with and
改善健康状况
without clinical conditions.
如 2011年分析报告
For example, a 2011 meta-analysis looked
对近850名参与者进行研究
at studies involving a total of almost 850 participants
其中大多数为学生
— mostly students.
研究发现
It found that exercising
比起室内运动 在自然环境中的锻炼
in a natural environment resulted in higher feelings of revitalization
能达到更好的恢复效果
than doing the same exercise indoors.
2012年的另一份研究发现
And another study from 2012 found that walking
在自然环境中散步50分钟能够
through nature for 50 minutes provided a mood
使20位忧郁的参与者心情舒畅 感知良好
boost and other cognitive benefits for twentyparticipants with depression.
证明也显示 精神分裂症或注意力不集中
There ’ s also evidence to suggest that those with schizophrenia, ADHD,
或其他病症
and a whole host
的人通过欣赏景观而获得相似益处
of other illnesses experience similar benefits from just taking in a little scenery.
现今 有几个因素
So far, there are several factors that have been floated
可能与这有关
around as possible explanations for this.
首先 大自然让我们释放压力 缓解注意力疲劳
One is that nature allows us to recover from stress and attention fatigue.
这是因为现代生活中
This is the idea that urban environments have
有太多事占据我们的大脑
too many things competing for our attention.
另一研究显示 自然界给我们提供锻炼机会
Other studies suggest that nature offers exercise opportunities,
使人际交往发展互动更方便
facilitation of social interaction
以及使个人能够全面发展
and development, and opportunities for personaldevelopment in general.
但这些因素并没有得到严谨的证实
But a lot of these factors haven ’ t been investigated in rigorous depth.
也不能够解释
They also don ’ t really explain the mechanisms
我们为什么只需要接触自然
of how we gain psychological benefits just
而不是在自然环境中奔跑或是
from existing in nature, rather than running around in nature,
于朋友嬉戏 就能得到
chilling with friends with
心理益处
nature.
事实上 这个话题上的大多数研究
In fact, most research
都认为这是难以解释的
on the subject seems to describe the mechanisms as ‘ elusive ’.
就如心理学家说的 “我们不知道
Which is psychologist speak for, “We dunno.
我们正在研究中”
We ’ re workin ’ on it. ” Still,
但那并不意味着
that doesn ’ t mean we don ’
我们没有推测
t have a hypotheses or two.
一些研究者认为这些积极影响
Some researchers argue that these positive effects,
产生的部分原因是
at least in part, come about because
与自然世界的一种强化的连通感知力
of an increased sense of connectedness tothe natural world.
2009年 环境和行为 一书中
One significant experiment about this was published
曾发表过一篇重要的实验报告
in 2009 in Environment and Behavior,
报告研究 接触自然对心情
and it looked at the effect of exposure to nature
及问题解决的作用
on mood and problem solving.
这项研究对76名学生进行问卷调查
In this study, 76 students were asked to complete questionnaires
研究关于心情 自然规模与
on mood, along with the Connectedness
神经中枢系统的连通性或CNS
with Nature Scale – or CNS – which
就名称而言 该研究具有重大作用
measures pretty much what the name implies.
调查中 参与者要记录他们对
It asks participants to rate how they feel
一些模糊嬉皮士的东西的感受 比如
about some vaguely hippy-ish stuff, like ‘ Right
“我现在感觉和自然界是一体的”
now I’m feeling a sense of oneness withthe natural world’.
或者 “我觉得
Or ‘ I ’ m feeling
我属于大自然这一个整体”
like the natural world is a community to which I belong ’.
然后对13份这样和平与爱的表述进行评价
After rating 13 of those peace and love statements,
学生们被分为两组
the students were split into two groups, and
并分组上车去旅行
bundled onto buses for a field trip.
20分钟后 他们被带到
They took a 20-minute drive to either a
自然保护区或市区停车场
nature reserve or a downtown parking lot. Then,
然后他们要在15分钟内安静的散步
they spent around 15 minutes silently walking, sitting,
坐立或观察环境
and taking in the scenery
然后再次完成问卷
before filling out those questionnaires again.
结果显示
The results showed
去自然保护区的参与者更多的提到了
that participants who went to the nature reserve reported significantly
这次旅行中的愉悦的心情状态
more of a mood boost from their trip.
他们与自然界连通的感觉
Their feelings of being connected to nature were also higher
比那些在市区停车场散步
than those who took a stroll
的学生的感觉更深
in the parking lot. Now,
这并不让人惊讶
this in itself isn’t massively surprising.
你能想象 很难感受到
You can imagine it ’ s probably hard to feel
整个宇宙存在于无尽的
at one with the universe standing on a stretch
具体物当中
of concrete.
更有趣的是
What was more interesting is
中枢神经系统调查结果似乎
that the CNS survey results seemed to mediate the effects
在调和环境的影响
of the environment.
具体地说 当他们说他们觉得
More specifically, when people reported that they felt part
自己是自然的一部分 那他们的心情
of nature, their mood boost
变化会很大
tended to be bigger.
并不仅与看到自然有关
So it wasn ’ t just about seeing nature;
而是他们感觉与自然融为一体
it was about feeling like they are part of it.
支持这项实验的科学家认为
The scientists behind this experiment argue
正是这样连通性的感知
that it ’ s that sense of connectedness that
造成了自然界对人的积极影响
causes all those positive benefits.
他们也把所谓的生物自卫猜测作为原因
And they cite something called the biophilia hypothesis as a possible mechanism for this.
该猜测认为 从进化论的角度来说
The hypothesis theorizes that since, evolutionarily speaking,
我们已习惯于生活在大自然的环境中
we ’ re used living in natural environments,
我们本能的需要接触自然
we all have some innate urge to seek out nature.
研究者们认为我们应该把自己视为
The researchers suggest that we need to see ourselves
自然界的一部分 同属于我们共同生活在
as part of it, belonging to the
地球上的各种植被野生物种
same group as the various plant and wildlife species we share our planet with.
我们很难去检验像这样的进化论推测
It can be hard to prove evolutionary hypotheses like this,
尤其像上诉所说的
especially when they ’ re as abstract
这样抽象理念
as this one.
但是 我们从属于某一群组从而
But the concept that we need to belong
保证精神健康 这样的观念
to groups to stay mentally healthy is one of
正是社会心理研究中重要原则之一
the main principles of social psychology research.
事实上 这种从属于某种人群
In fact, it ’ s such an important concept
的归属感的观念
that having a sense of belonging with other
也是人类核心需要的重要观念
people is seen as a core human need in somemodels.
缺乏这种归属感将会导致
Not having this sense of belonging can lead to things
免疫反应的降低
like lowered immune response, and
差质量的睡眠 而且
poorer sleep quality. And,
同样的
conveniently,
这些正是研究者在接触自然的研究中
those are exactly the kind of functions researchers have seen improve
发现到得到提升的一些功能
when we’re exposed to natural environments.
所以 不难想象
So it ’ s not that huge of a stretch to think
归属感的需求
that maybe that need to feel like we belong
远超过人们的交流
extends beyond human interactions,
即我们自己视为星球上广大生态系统中的
to seeing ourselves as part of the wider ecosystem on
一部分
our planet.
这是一个貌似合理的想法
It ’ s a plausible idea,
而且该研究的结果也证实了这一点
and the results of this study certainly support it.
但正如其他伟大的想法一样
But like with a lot of other big ideas,
这需要更多的研究来做支撑
it would help to have more research to be sure.
即使不能够
If nothing else, though,
研究表明接触自然真的对你有益处
studies do suggest that time in nature is really good for you.
即使我们不知道确切的原因
So even if we don ’ t totally know why,
常常游览附近的公园也是值得的
it ’ s probably worth visiting your local park sometime.
你的大脑或是你的情绪都会因此得到益处
Your brain — and your mood — will thankyou.
谢谢观看这段scishow psych心理视频
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShowPsych!
若喜欢接触自然并想了解更多相关内容
If you enjoy hanging out in nature and want to learn more about it,
你可以查询
you can check out
我们的一个姊妹频道nature league
one of our new sister channels, Nature League!
在那里 我们年轻的
In it, SciShow Psych ’ s very
Brit Garner 会介绍所有与自然相关的知识
own Brit Garner explores all things wild — and takes you
带你一起进行一些实地考察
on some field trips as a bonus.
你可以在YouTube或 nature League上找到
You can find it at youtube.com/natureleague.
音乐
[\u00a0♪ OUTRO ]

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压力??不开心?来一次大自然之旅吧!

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