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便便总是漂在水面上是重病的征兆吗?

Why Does My Poop Float?

你是否曾在拉完便便后回头发现你的便便漂浮在水上
Have you ever looked down after doing your business and noticed that your poop is floating?
也许这种情况时有时无
Maybe this comes and goes,
或者你的便便总是漂浮着
or maybe your poop is always buoyant.
你甚至会担心这是一种病
You might have even worried that this was a problem.
如果你在网上查找相关信息 很多著名的网站可能会提到
Like, if you look it up online, a lot of reputable websites will mention that one reason your
一个导致粪便漂浮的原因就是脂肪
poop floats is because of fat.
脂肪没有水密度大 因此 这种想法就出现了:假如
Fat is less dense than water, and so, the thinking goes, if you have enough of it
你粪便里含有脂肪 那么这些脂肪就有可能是粪便漂浮的原因
in your poop, that’s probably why it floats.
但是脂性粪―医生们喜欢把它称为脂肪痢粪―
But fatty stools—what doctors like to call steatorrheic stools—
的发生是因为你没有吸收你摄入的脂肪
happen because you aren’t absorbing the fat you eat.
那通常是是重大疾病的一个标志
And that’s usually a sign of a really serious problem,
例如胰腺癌或者囊胞性纤维症
like pancreatic cancer or cystic fibrosis.
追溯到70年代早期 迈克尔.莱维特和威廉.杜安 两位明尼苏达州大学的研究者
Back in the early ‘70s, Michael Levitt and William Duane, a pair of researchers at
就对脂肪是使便便漂浮的原因这个设想感到困扰
the University of Minnesota, were annoyed by this assumption that fat is why feces float.
他们更倾向于怀疑便便里的气体是罪魁祸首
They suspected that trapped gas was the more likely culprit.
毕竟 大约百分之十五的健康人士―包括杜安
After all, about 15 percent of perfectly healthy people—including Duane—
经常有漂浮的便便
consistently had bobbers.
因此 他们决定进行调查 并且把他们的结果写成论文
So, they decided to investigate, and kindly wrote up their results in the prestigious
发表在《新英格兰医药杂志》上 标题叫”漂浮的便便––
New England Journal of Medicine in a paper called, “Floating Stools —
屁和脂肪的对决”
Flatus versus Fat.”
33个健康的 其中一些出现漂浮便便的志愿者 和6个有脂肪痢的病人贡献了样本
33 healthy volunteers, some with floaters, donated samples, along with 6 patients with steatorrhea.
科学家把样本放进装有水的烧杯中 观察它们是否会沉下去
The scientists put the specimens in flasks with water to see if they sank.
如果没有 他们会增加压力来挤出里边的气体 然后检查是否依然会漂浮
If not, they added pressure to squeeze out any gas and checked to see if anything still floated.
然而 就连脂肪最多的便便在排气后也沉到了底部
But even the fattiest poops sank to the bottom when degassed.
事实上科学家认为 漂浮的便便是由脂肪导致
In fact, the scientists determined that it’s almost impossible for a bowel movement
这一事实不可能存在
to float just because of its fat content.
因为那将会需要有一半都是脂肪
You would need it to be half fat.
因此结论是 气体导致了大部分便便的上浮
So gas creates most of the uplift.
但气体是什么呢? 它从哪里来的呢?
But what is it, and where is it coming from?
幸运的是 我们的勇敢二人组同样分析了提纯后气体的样本 他们用色谱分析法
Luckily, our gutsy duo also analyzed the pure samples with gas chromatography
分离了混合物质并且辨别出这些神秘的气体
to separate out the compounds and identify the mystery gas.
研究后发现主要成分是甲烷 与天然气的组成相同
It turns out that a big part is methane, the same stuff in natural gas.
一种存在于结肠 被称为”产烷生物”的特殊细菌产生了这种气体
It’s made by special bacteria in the colon called methanogens.
所有人体内都有这种细菌 但是有些人似乎更多
Everybody has some of these bugs, but some people seem to have way more—
就像威廉 杜安 他在他的论文里承认他产生的甲烷近乎接近最高比例
like William Duane, who admitted in his paper that he produced methane at ‘near record proportions.’
产烷生物依靠氢气生存 而且可以使纤维在内脏中发酵 这有一点点像是奶牛能够做到的
Methanogens run on hydrogen, and can ferment fiber in the gut, a bit like a cow can.
它意味着假如你不吃豆类那样纤维丰富的食物 你将获得更多能量
That means you get more energy out of fiber-rich foods like beans.
所以 不要相信你在网上阅读到的所有关于便便的东西
So, don’t believe everything you read online about your poop.
如果你的便便可以漂浮 可能只是你体内的气体太多了
If you have floaters, you could be just gassy.
假如碰巧是你的脂性粪漂浮呢?其实 那同样因为气体
And if you have fatty poop that happens to float? Well, that’s because of gas, too.
感谢提问 并且特别感谢在patreon众筹平台上的所有赞助者
Thanks for asking, and thanks especially to all of our patrons on Patreon
他们促使这些答案来临
who keep these answers coming.
如果你想提交一些需要被回答的问题 请前往patreon.com/scishow
If you’d like to submit questions to be answered, just go to patreon.com/scishow.
还有 别忘了去youtube.com/scishow订阅哦!
And don’t forget to go to youtube.com/scishow and subscribe!

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