“Hayashi sensei ga odoroku, hatsumimigaku!”
This is Hayashi Osamu,
a cram school teacher who became famous for a commercial in which
he says “ja itsu yaru ka? i ma desho!”
That’s easy for him to say
because Hayashi Sensei here is blood type O and as we know
from the 2013 anime “ketsuekigatakun” or “Blood type kun”
blood type O people have great focus
and can stay up all night studying.
You see, in Japan, blood types are sort of like zodiac signs.
你看 在日本 血型就像黄道带饰件那样
Many people believe that blood type affects personality
and can determine things like the compatibility of a marriage partner.
And this idea has been widespread since at least the 1970’s
when journalist Nomi Masahiko he got made it popular.
旅行家Nomi Masahiko（能见正比古） 让血型说流行起来
Blood type is more likely to be brought up
when on the topic of romance,
but it’s not uncommon for blood type to appear
in the media and many other places.
This is famous singer Nishino Kana’s 2015 song
about blood type A people
“Datte watashi A gatada shi, yappari are kore to shinpai”
One Japanese television show aired an experiment to see how
kids would react when a “substitute teacher” dropped a vase
that the kids were told was very important.
They saw that blood type A kids right away told
on the substitute teacher,
type B kept the secret,
type O also told on the sub,
and type AB promised to keep it secret
but then ratted the sub out anyway.
In 1990 the Asahi newspaper reported
that Mitsubishi Electronics created a small team
composed entirely of blood type AB people,
thanks to their “excellent creativity and planning skills”.
In 2011, ex-Minister Ryu Matsumoto,
2011年 前董事长Ryu Mastumoto（松本龙）
famously conducted himself in an unprofessional way
that led to his resignation.
He blamed the rude behavior and
abrasive remarks he made towards two governors
on the fact that he was blood type B.
“B-gata de tanrakuteki na tokoro ga atte”
That same year, an issue of Asahi Newspaper talked
about how some new graduates were worried that they were being
discriminated against during hiring processes for being blood type B.
It’s not particularly common, but people can
sometimes be asked what their blood type is during a job interview,
and on some companies’job application sheet,
there’s even a field to fill in your blood type.
One twitter user wrote in 2015 that one of his work superiors
2015年 一位推特网友写到了 他的上司
said that “blood type O people are usually irresponsible
so I don’t want to hire them.”
Now let me be clear that I’m not trying to present
this as a big societal “problem”
the point of these examples is simply to illustrate
how widespread the concept is in Japan.
According to data from 2016,
somewhere around 40 % of Japanese people believe that
blood type contributes to your personality,
but what was most surprising to me was that: According to
a 2017 survey from an online community exclusive to doctors called medpeer,
38 % of doctors thought that blood type affects personality.
Let’s first take a quick look at the history of this.
In 1901, Austrian Physician Karl Landsteiner discovered blood types and
在1901年 奥地利内科医生Karl Landsteiner发现血型和
we now can type blood based the antigens on the blood cell.
Simply put you are A, B, AB or O
depending on if you have A antigens, B antigens,
both antigens or neither of the antigens.
而将你区分成A型血 B型血 AB型血和O型血
By the way, ABO is just one of many blood grouping systems,
but it’s what we’ll focus on for this video.
In 1910, German scientists Ludwig Hirszfeld and Emil von Dungern
1910年 德国科学家Ludwig Hirszfeld和Emil von Dungern
demonstrated that blood type is an inherited trait,
which was recognized as a huge milestone for human genetics.
Around this time, it was found that Japan had
twice as many blood blood type B people as did Europeans.
Emil von Dungern made the baseless and unclassy comment
Emil von Dungern做了毫无根据的评论
that blood type B people, and therefore and therefore,
Asians with their higher percentage of blood type B people are inferior.
Other researchers including Ludwig Hirszfeld had
also made negative comments about blood type B people.
This inflammatory commentary is what caused
professor Furukawa Takeji to begin investigating
how blood type affects personality.
He wanted to prove that there is nothing wrong
with the character of blood type B people.
He started his work by analyzing 11 of his relatives.
He found that blood type A people were shoukyokuteki which
translates to “inactive” or “passive”.
The blood type B and O people were sekkyokuteki
which means “positive” or “assertive”.
This encouraged Furukawa to go on and look at colleagues and students
as well, investigating 319 more people.
His results were presented in a 1926 paper titled
“Research on Temperament due to Blood Type”
he came up with these traits for each blood type.
Then In 1931 Furukawa published a sensational article
in the famous economics magazine jitsugyounonihon titled
“Astonishing new discovery—you can understand career
and marriage compatibility through blood type”
But by 1933 the Japanese Society of Legal Medicine
said that there was no relationship between blood type and personality,
criticizing Furukawa’s statistical methods and dismissing his findings.
Public interest in the topic remained for a while,
but eventually fizzled out.
Then about 40 years later, interest in blood type boomed again
thanks to journalist Nomi Masahiko’s book “Blood Type Anthropology”
with the subtext “Become happy by analyzing your personality”.
In the book he pointed out that a majority of
the post war Japanese prime ministers were blood type O
and that many successful baseball players from Japan and Korea
were blood type O or type B.
In Nomi Masahiko’s 1978 book “New Blood Type Anthropology”
he discusses some data from that same year – 1978,
from the AIU insurance company.
After looking at 1374 people involved in car accidents across 3 months,
they found that those with blood type O were
significantly more likely to be involved in an accident and
blood type A people were less likely to be in an accident.
Blood type O people made up 5%
more than expect of the accidents,
and blood type A people made up 4% less than expected.
Initially, this data might seem pretty convincing.
But several years later, in 1995, the story was flipped.
但多年调查之后 在1995年 这项研究被推翻
Type O’s were exonerated and
now type A’s were the bad guys.
3234 accidents in Ibaraki across two months showed that
type A people were much more likely to have a car accident
and type O people were much less likely to have one.
Despite this inconsistency with the 1978 data,
conclusions were even made about which
blood type is more likely to have what type of accident,
as is illustrated in this easy to understand comic.
Just this year, 2018, Takeda Tomohiro published a book titled
今年2018年 Takeda Tomohiro（武田知弘）出版一本叫
“It’s really amazing! Blood types.”
The new truth can be seen from statistics in the chapter titled
“The mystery of No type A sluggers”
he points out that all of the top ten Japanese home run
batters and top ten batters with the most hits
are either type B or O.
This might sound like impressive data,
“Kore chotto hottokenai data desu ne.”
But then again, this is looking at only 20 people.
When you look at the distribution of blood types across the 786
platters in the 12 teams of the Japanese pro baseball league,
it is hardly different from that of the national blood type distribution.
Let’s look at some science on what
we’re confident that blood type does have bearing on.
There’s a lot of research showing
blood type does affect your health in several ways.
But blood type O’s get most of the perks.
They are less likely to get pancreatic cancer,
areless likely to get Malaria, are less likely to get diabetes
and are less likely to develop cardiovascular disease
and cognitive decline in old age.
Type O’s can thank lower levels of von Willebrand factor,
a blood clotting agent for their protection
against heart disease and cognitive decline, but
this also means they are more likely to die from severe trauma.
You may have heard of the book “Eat right for your type”
Now did you ever think your blood type has anything to do with your diet?
Well this doctor says that does. author Peter D’Adamo claims
医生说有的 作家Peter D’Adamo提出
that your ticket to good health is eating in a way
that is suitable for your blood type.
He provides several lines of reasoning to back up his claims
which I may discuss in another video,
but this blood type diet of his seems
to be like the diet version of the Barnum effect.
The barnum effect is where someone will be given a fortune or
description of their personality based on their star sign or blood type
and the person may say it sounds very accurate,
it sounds just like them.
“I can’t believe he analyzed me so accurately.”
“It does feel actually so personal,
such quite hard for me to share.”
“It’s kind of astounding.
I’ve always believed in something like it,
but it also shocks me
because I didn’t think it would work so well.”
But in reality, the description was vague enough to
where it could have applied to anyone.
“Yea. I’m afraid you have all got the exact same reading.”
A 2014 study found that
the diets found in “Eat right for your type”
blood type A diet, AB diet and O diet provided benefits
like lowered BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure,
比如说降低身体质量指数 腰围 血压
triglycerides and insulin.
But it didn’t matter who followed which diet.
You could be blood type O and
still get the benefits from a blood type A diet.
However D’Adamo claims that “Studies have shown that Type O
has a stress response that centers on fight-or-flight.”
He explains that the neurotransmitter dopamine is converted into the neurotransmitter norepinephrine
by an enzyme called dopamine beta-hydroxylase,
and that blood type O people have higher levels of DBH,
so they are prone to anxiety from increased levels of norepinephrine.
Higher levels of norepinephrine apparently also causes a tendency towards anger and aggression.
This is why he recommends type O people to do vigorous exercise
and eat a lot of protein because that will block the enzymeDBH.
In the book, there are no reference numbers next to his
claims and “Appendix G: The Scientific Evidence”
didn’t have any information on where
he got this dopamine beta-hydroxylase idea
but I went ahead and looked into it and found
a paper online by a Donna Hobgood under “Medical Hypotheses”
She explains that the gene for the enzyme we just discussed
dopamine beta hydroxylase is on chromosome 9q34
and is in tight linkage disequilibrium with the ABO blood typing gene.
This might have been what one of the Japanese doctors
in the earlier mentioned medpeer survey was referring to when he
said that the reason he believes blood type is related to personality
is that he had heard that the gene for blood type
and personality factors are close to each other on DNA.
Hobgood says in her paper that “low activity DBH would relate to impulsive behaviors
while high activity DBH would relate to persistent behaviors.”
Then in 2015, inspired by the hypothesis presented by Hobgood,
Japanese researchers investigated “ABO Blood Type and Personality Traits in Healthy Japanese Subjects”.
The results of the study showed significant differences in persistence scores,
showing that subjects with the blood type A allele were more persistent.
Though the authors were careful to say that
this should be considered preliminary results
and that this data are inconsistent with several other previous studies.
In contrast, a 2014 paper looking at 10,000 people
from both Japan and the U.S. found that blood type explained
“less than 0.3% of the total variance in personality”
The paper is titled “No relationship between blood type and personality:
Evidence from large-scale surveys in Japan and the US”.
So we’re hardly at a point where we can make any worthwhile conclusions
about a person’s character based on their blood type.
Now, with all this said,
couldn’t there be something to this blood type personality thing?
After all, the reason some people get invested in this idea
is because they really identify with the description for their blood type.
But that sounds a lot like the Barnum Effect.
And another factor in this could be that
it’s an example of a self fulfilling prophecy
– if someone is told from a young age
that they must be the unique and artistic type,
because they are blood type AB,
then they might start to view themselves as unique and artistic.
if you have a giant “B” stuck to your shirt,
you might act a little more like a type B person.
But then again, Maybe the type A blood
in me is making me overly skeptical.
While it’s hard to actually make use of this information about
blood type, hopefully this was a decent exercise in critical thinking.
If you want to further develop your critical thinking,
then I really recommend checking out out Brilliant.
It’s a problem solving website that teaches you to be more analytical.
They take complex concepts, break them down into bite sized nuggets,
and guide you to think and apply your knowledge,
so you can build a framework of understanding.
For example, in their Science Essentials course,
they explain the story of how Barry Marshall proved that
peptic ulcers are not the result of stress and spicy foods,
but the bacteria H. Pylori.
This is faraway unfortunate for blood type O people
as they seem to have a higher chance of getting it.
In the course, they use this example to not only
explain the concept of empirical skepticism,
but also encourage you to think for yourself
about why Barry Marshall confidently arrived at his conclusion.
So confident that he actually drank H. Pylori
to get an ulcer and prove his point.
It’s good to keep your critical thinking sharp
so you can keep yourself safe from flimsy logic like what
we saw in the development of the blood type /personality theory.
So make sure and check out brilliant.org/WIL/ and sign up for free.
The first 200 people that go to that link
will get 20% off the annual Premium subscription.”
“Hayashi sensei ga odoroku, hatsumimigaku!”