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为什么2月只有28天? – 译学馆
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为什么2月只有28天?

Why Does February Only Have 28 Days?

[音乐]PBS数码工作室
[MUSIC]
尽管2015年2月正好整齐地排满日历的一页
Although February 2015 might fit perfectly on the page,
但每年的二月都比其他月份少几天
every year it’s the runt of the monthly litter.
这些缺少的日子 错乱的月历和古怪的年历
This deficit of days, this calendar craziness, this oddity of the annum,
和很多现代文化一样 都是罗马人的错
like so much of modern culture, is the Romans’ fault.
关于为什么二月有28天 有个离奇的故事…… 不是28天除外
Here’s the crazy story of why February has 28 days… except when it doesn’t.
【音乐】
[MUSIC]
做一个聪明人也没关系
罗穆卢斯 一位可能只存在于神话中的罗马城建造者和首任国王 遇到个问题
Romulus, the maybe-mythical, maybe-real founderand first king of Rome, had a problem.
随着需要记录的节日 宴会 军事仪式和宗教庆典的增加
With an increasing number of festivals, feasts,military ceremonies, and religious celebrations to keep track of,
罗马人需要日历来将它们安排好
Romans needed a calendar to organize all of them.
古代天文学家对两分 两至间的时间已有了精准的计算
Ancient astronomers already had accurate calculations for the time between two solar equinoxes or solstices,
不过大自然给了人类一个超赞又简单的天空饼图(月亮)来记录时间的流逝
but nature had given people a nice,easy pie chart in the sky to track the passage of time,
因此 早期的罗马 和其他文明一样 使用阴历
so early Rome, like many other cultures,worked off a lunar calendar.
罗马共和国的日历有十个月 每个月有30或31天
The calendar of the Romulan republic had ten months of either 30 or 31 days,
始于三月 终于十二月
beginning in March and ending in December,
今天 我们仍能看到罗马历法的蛛丝马迹
and we can still see traces of that calendar today.
问题是 罗马历法的一年比四季短几天
Problem was, that year was a few days shortof four seasons.
到了冬天 罗马人忙得焦头烂额 并不热衷于记录多出来的61.25天
Romans were too busy not dying during winter to count those 61 and a quarter extra days…
他们直接在春分前的新月开始新的一年
they’d just start the next year on the new moon before the spring equinox.
从十二月到三月 如果你不管今夕何夕 这个历法其实还不错
It’s actually not a bad system, as long as you don’t have to figure out what day it is between December and March.
罗马的第二任国王 努马•庞皮留斯 进行了新的尝试
So the second king of Rome, Numa Pompilius, tried something else.
在罗马 偶数是不吉利的
Even numbers were bad luck in Ancient Rome,
因此 努马的第一项尝试就是把偶数月都去掉一天
so Numa started by removing a day from all the even-numbered months.
出于对月神的崇拜 努马希望他的历法能够涵盖月亮的十二个周期
And being loony for Luna, Numa wanted hiscalendar to cover 12 cycles of the moon,
不过那样就会是个偶数 所以努马又加了一天 把一年凑成了355天
but that would have been an even number, so herounded his year up to 355.
他又把剩余的六十几天分成了两个月加到了年末
Numa split the remaining days into two months and tackedthem on to the end of the year.
这就是二月是28天的缘由
And that’s how February got 28 days.
是的 这是个偶数
但因为这个月是用来净化心灵的 罗马人就听之任之了
but since the month was dedicated to spiritual purification, Romans let that one slide.
不过 哪怕像古罗马那么强大 也不能改变宇宙法则
But, as powerful as Rome may have been, theycouldn’t change the rules of the universe,
这两部历法都和我们绕太阳运行所需时间相差甚远
and neither of these calendars add up anywhereclose to the time it takes us to orbit the sun.
几年以后 季节和月份就对不上号了
After a few years, the seasons are out of whack with the months,
像猫狗混住 一团糟!
dogs and cats, living together, mass hysteria!!
我们刚刚说了那个笑话吗?【是的】
Did we already use that joke?
历法从此变得更乱了
This is where it gets even weirder.
你看 二月实际上被分成了两个部分 开始的23天和剩下的几天
See, February was actually split in two parts.The first 23 days and… the rest.
每年 努马带有迷信色彩的历法都会偏离季节十多天
Every year, Numa’s superstitious calendarwould be out of line with the seasons by a little more than 10 days.
因此 每隔一年 二月的最后几天都会被忽略
So every other year,the last few days of February were ignored
然后在2月23日或者24日之后加上27天的闰月
and a 27-day leap month was added after February23rd or 24th.
这种历法使每四年平均下来是366.25天
This way every four years would average outto 366 and a quarter days…
还是差了很多天 不过 我们马上就算好了
which is still too many days, but hey, we’re getting there.
迷糊了?当然会这样 努马!
Confused? You should be. Numa!
这种历法也还可以 每19年 阴历和阳历会统一
This system could have worked, every 19 years,lunar and solar calendars tend to line up,
所以 只要增加足够的闰月保证和季节相对应 最终一切都会回到正轨
so add enough leap months to keep the seasonsin order and eventually everything will reset itself.
除非人们没有按规矩添加
Except these leap months weren’t alwaysadded according to plan.
政客们会通过增加闰月来延长他们的任期 或者故意不加闰月来使政敌们提早下台
Politicians would ask for leap months to extend their terms,or “forget” them to get their opponents out of office.
并且 若是罗马处于战时 人们可能会好几年都忘记加闰月
And if Rome was at war, sometimes the leapmonth would be forgotten for years, and by
在盖乌斯•尤利乌斯•恺撒上台后 事情开始变得十分难懂
and by the time Julius Caesar came to power, thingshad gotten pretty confusing.
恺撒在埃及呆了很久 在那儿 365天的历法正流行
Caesar had spent a lot of time in Egypt, where365-day calendars were all the rage,
所以在公元前46年 他用阳历替换了罗马的阴历
so in 46 BC, he flushed Rome’s lunar calendardown the aqueduct and installed a solar calendar.
一月和二月已经被移到年初
January and February had already been movedto the beginning of the year,
恺撒还在不同的月份加了10天凑成了一年365天
and Caesar added 10 days to different months to get a totalof 365.
由于回归年比365天长一点 尤利乌斯每四年都会增加一天闰日
And since a tropical year is a tad longerthan 365 days, Julius added a leap day every four years,
除此之外 他们在2月23日之后添加闰日 也就是在这个月中旬添加
except they inserted it afterFebruary 23, right in the middle of the month.
显然 二月就是历法中的垃圾桶 任人宰割
Apparently February is the trash heap of thecalendar, just do whatever feels good.
因为他们所做的历法革新和其他所为
For all their work to reform the calendarand other stuff they did,
一年中的第七个和第八个月分别被命名为尤利乌斯和他的继任者盖维斯•屋大维•奥古斯都
the 7th and 8th months of the year were renamed for Juliusand his successor Augustus Caesar,
尽管波普•格雷戈里在1500年之后又调整了历法
despite the fact that Pope Gregory would have to adjustit again in 1500 years.
不过那是另一个时期(日子)的故事了
或者……另一个月 我知道的就这些了
保持好奇心
Stay curious.
谢天谢地我们有疫苗 它是由微小的或者被削弱的病毒和细菌制成的
它们让我们的免疫系统掌握这些“坏家伙”的样子
并且在遇到真正的敌人之前武装所有重要细胞

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视频概述

通过对古罗马历法变更过程的介绍,解释了为什么2月只有28天

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收集自网络

翻译译者

☆sivan☆

审核员

审核员V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AgKaHTh-_Gs

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