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为什么斑马身上有条纹?

Why Do Zebras Have Stripes?

嗨 大家好
Hi, everybody!
你们来的很及时
You’re just in time.
我和吱吱正在探寻动物的秘密
Squeaks and I are looking into an animal mystery.
我们之前观看了动物大全 书中最后的动物吸引了我们的
We were looking through our big book of animals, and the last animal in the book caught our
目光
eye.
它就是斑马!
It’s a zebra!
在这之前你们可能已经听说过它们 它们看起来很像马 但是它们有黑
You’ve probably heard of them before — they look a lot like horses, but they have black
白相间的条纹!
and white stripes!
你们是否曾经对为什么斑马有这么特别的条纹感到好奇?
Have you ever wondered why zebras have these special stripes?
让我们近距离去观察斑马的生话 去寻找问题的答案
To find out, let’s look a little closer at the life of a zebra.
斑马与马有非常近的联系 它们很多方面都很相像
Zebras are closely related to horses, and they are a lot like them in many ways
它们看起来像马 当然 跑起来也和马很像
They look like horses, of course, and run like them too.
它们像马一样吃草 甚至叫起来也和马一样
They eat grass like horses do, and they even sound a bit like them.
但是斑马和马在一些重要方面有很大不同
But zebras are also different from horses in some important ways.
首先 马在世界的很多地方都可以找到 但是野生的斑马只生活
For one thing, horses can be found in many parts of the world, but wild zebras only live
在非洲
in Africa.
斑马在脖子后面也有毛发一一叫做鬃毛一一和马
Zebras also have hair on the back of their neck — called a mane — that’s shorter
的鬃毛相比斑马的更短 更尖
and spikier than it is on horses.
当然 马有很多不同的颜色和图案 但斑马只穿
And of course, horses come in many different colors and patterns, but all zebras wear a
一件黑白相间的外衣!
coat of black and white stripes!
但是 并非所有的斑马都完全相同
But still, not all zebras are exactly the same.
斑马实际上有三个不同品种或者说是三个特殊类型
There are actually three different species, or special types, of zebra!
其中的两种是以它们居住的地方命名的
Two of these species are named after the kind of place they live in.
平原斑马生活在平原 那里非常平坦 有许多的草和
The Plains Zebra lives on plains, where it’s mostly flat and there’s a lot of grass and
其他植物供斑马食用
other plants to eat.
还有一种是山地斑马 它们居住在一一你们猜到了!一一在山地
Then there’s the Mountain Zebra, which lives — you guessed it! — in the mountains.
最后一种叫做细纹斑马 它们只生活在非洲一些
The last species is called Grévy’s GRAVY’S Zebra, and it only lives on a few special
特殊的草原
grasslands in Africa.
但是所有种类的斑马都有它们著名的条纹 科学家们一直想知道
But all types of zebras have their famous stripes, and scientists have always wondered
这些条纹有什么用处
what these stripes were for.
今天我们对此也感到非常的好奇!
This is what we’re curious about today!
让我们看看这些关于条纹可能对斑马在野外生存提供
Let’s look at a few ideas about how these stripes might help zebras to survive in the
帮助的想法
wild.
一些科学家认为斑马能通过它们的条纹认出
Some scientists used to think that zebras could use their stripes to recognize each
彼此
other.
每匹斑马被证明都有自己唯一的图案和条纹 就像每个人
It turns out that each zebra has a unique pattern of stripes, just like how every person
一一包括你一一在你的指尖都有唯一的一套指纹
— including you! — has a unique set of fingerprints on their fingertips.
可能斑马通过看互相的条纹 就能认出彼此和它们的
Maybe, by looking at each other’s stripes, zebras could recognize each other, and their
家人
families.
但是你不可能通过指纹认出你的朋友
But you don’t recognize your friends by their fingerprints.
所以 我们也不能确定斑马能使用那样的方式
So, we’re not sure that zebras use their stripes that way, either.
毕竟 斑马有许多辨认彼此的方法 像通过嗅觉
After all, zebras have many other ways to recognize each other, like by their smell
或是通过它们发出的声音
or by the sounds they make.
所以 科学家还认为斑马用它们的条纹去躲避猎食者
So, scientists have also thought that zebras might use their stripes to hide from predators.
狮子和土狼是两个经常捕猎斑马的猎食者
Lions and hyenas are two predators that often hunt zebras.
所以一些人认为斑马的长条纹可能会帮助它们躲藏在长得很高的
So some have thought that the zebras’ long stripes might help them stay hidden in the
草丛中
tall grass.
但是在近距离观察后 科学家发现斑马的条纹并不能阻止狮子
But after looking closer, scientists noticed that the zebras’ stripes didn’t stop lions
和土狼发现它们
and hyenas from finding them.
相反 猎食者使用鼻子通过气味找出斑马一一它们跟本不会被
Instead, the predators used their noses to find zebras by smell — they weren’t fooled
斑马的条纹所欺骗
by the zebras’ stripes at all.
所以 条纹可能有其它用处!
So, maybe the stripes do something else!
并且斑马还要躲避另外一种动物:马蝇!
And, there is one other animal that zebras need to keep away: horseflies!
马蝇是大型讨厌的螫蝇 它们经常叮咬像斑马这样的动物 有点像
Horseflies are big, pesky biting flies, and they often bite animals like zebras, kind
蚊子叮咬人类
of like how mosquitoes bite people.
但是科学家注意到马蝇好像并不喜欢斑马的条纹
But scientists have noticed that horseflies don’t seem to like zebra stripes.
一些黑白图案的条纹让马蝇很混乱 所以
Something about the pattern of the black and white stripes makes horseflies confused, so
它们远离了斑马
they stay away from them.
可能这就是条纹的用处!
So maybe that’s it!
当今 一些科学家认为斑马的条纹能帮助它们躲避马蝇的叮咬
Today, some scientists think that the stripes help zebras avoid getting bitten by horseflies.
这些条纹就像嵌入了驱虫剂一样起到了作用
The stripes might work kind of like a built in bug repellant
事实上 斑马被证明拥有最多条纹的部位是它们不想
In fact, it turns out that zebras have the most stripes in places they really don’t
被马蝇叮咬的位置 比如它们的脸上
want horseflies to bite them, like on their faces.
许多人也已经开始使用从这种动物的秘密中得到的答案去帮助保护
And many other people have started using the answer to this animal mystery to help protect

horses, too.
许多农民已经开始把斑马条纹的外衣用在了他们的马上 来让马蝇远离
Some farmers have started putting zebra striped coats on their horses to keep horseflies away.
使用我们从动物身上学到的去帮助我们的动物朋友 这种方式多么令人吃惊
What an amazing way to use what we’ve learned to help our animal friends.
一个问题不只一个正确答案 记住这一点很重要
It’s important to remember that there could be more than one right answer to a question
尤其当你对待自然和科学的时候
— especially when you’re dealing with nature and science.
所以 科学家仍然在寻找条纹在哪些其它方面可能帮助了
So, scientists are still looking at all of the other things that stripes might help a
斑马
zebra to do.
斑马的条纹还有什么用处 可能你也会有一些好的想法
Maybe you have some good ideas of what these stripes could do, too.
尝试用你的科学技能去完成你自己的猜想!
Try using your science skills to make your own guess!
找一个大人去帮助你实观你的想法 或者给我们发邮件
Ask a grown-up to help you to leave your ideas below, or send us an email at kids@scishow.com
下次还在这里见
We’ll see you next time, here at the fort!

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视频概述

为什么斑马身上有条纹,科学家发观条纹的用途,以及条纹的应用。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

莱特伊特够

审核员

瞌睡虫儿

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GhfBOyPQqX0

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