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你集中注意力的时候为什么要伸出舌头? – 译学馆
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你集中注意力的时候为什么要伸出舌头?

Why Do You Stick Out Your Tongue When You Concentrate?

[开场曲]
♪ INTRO ♪
你可曾注意过 当你非常努力做一些事
Have you ever noticed that when you ’ re trying really hard to do something,
比如穿针时
like thread a needle,
你的舌头自己伸了出来
your tongue will just sort of stick out all by itself?
在这个屏息凝神的时刻
In these moments of deep concentration,
你的舌头并不需要做什么
your tongue isn ’ t really doing anything.
那它为什么会伸出
So why does it happen? Well,
研究人员仍努力确定答案
researchers are still trying to pin down the answer,
但他们的确有些想法
but they do have some good ideas.
现在 这个现象的最佳解释是
Right now, the best explanation for this phenomenon
伸舌头是你大脑的窍门
is that poking out your tongue is your
来防止自己分散注意力
brain ’ s way of stopping itself from getting distracted. See,
你的舌头有点像个渴望被注意的人
your tongue is a bit of an attention-seeker,
而且它不断地向你的大脑提供
and it ’ s constantly giving your brain updates
你嘴中事务的最新消息
about what ’ s going on in your mouth. Unfortunately,
不幸的是所有输入信息都送往同一地方
all those motor inputs get sent to the same areas
这个地方协助你的集中或协调动作
of your brain that help you concentrate or coordinate movements— specifically,
明确来说 及前额皮质和小脑
the prefrontal cortex and the cerebellum.
根据这个前提
According to this hypothesis,
你的舌头伸出来或是夹在你嘴唇之间
your tongue gets poked out or clamped between your lips
是为了阻止恼人的念头
to stop to all this annoying brain chatter
在你凝神时打扰
when you ’ re trying to focus.
当然 即使这个想法被广泛支持
Of course, even though this idea is well supported,
辩论并没有因此结束
the debate isn ’ t over yet.
有些科学家认为 至少在孩童中
Some scientists think that, at least in children,
舌头的伸出也许压根就没有目的
tongue protrusion might not really have a purpose at all.
也许仅仅是因为
It might just happen because kids haven ’
孩子未能熟练的分开使用身体的不同部分
t yet mastered using the different parts of their bodies separately.
因此 他们会做和手中任务无关的动作
As a result, they could make what are called overflow movements—
这些动作被称为溢出动作
movements that don ’ t have anything to do with the task at hand.
比如你玩一个很难的电脑游戏时伸出舌头
Like sticking out your tongue while playing a hard video game. Another,
这相当新的解释也启示了
fairly new explanation also suggests
这任性的舌头也许没有目的
that this wayward tongue might not have a purpose. Instead,
反而 它也许只是
it might just be a cool leftover
人类发展语言过程中的剩菜
from when humans developed spoken language. See,
一些科学家认为语言以手势和面部表情开端
some scientists suggest that language began with gestures and facial expressions. Then,
然后声音才加入 最后声音主导
sounds were added in, and eventually, voice took over.
一个关键的证据是
One key piece of evidence for this is that,
在我们的大脑中掌控语言的部位
in our brains, the same area in charge of speech,
及布罗卡氏区
called Broca ’ s area,
也掌管一些手部动作
is also in charge of some hand movements.
当然 也有很多
Of course, there are also a lot
其他有关语言发展的想法
of other ideas about how language developed,
所以科学家总是寻找更多证据来支持假说
so scientists are always looking for more evidence to support their hypotheses.
据一个团队所说
And according to one team,
你伸出的舌头也许就是证据
some of that evidence might be your stuck-out tongue.
他们2015年发表在《认知》的论文中
In their paper, published in 2015 in the journal Cognition,
研究人员在十四个孩子玩不同游戏时录像
the researchers taped 14 kids as they played different games,
大多数游戏需要他们用手
most of which required them to use their hands.
游戏中 研究人员记下
During the games, they recorded the number
孩子们伸出舌头的次数
of times the kids poked their tongues out.
他们发现有一些孩子在所有任务中
They found that at least some children stuck out their tongues
都伸出舌头
for all of the tasks,
但玩一个语言形式的游戏时伸舌头更频繁
but that they poked them out more frequently during a language-like game.
在这个游戏中 当实验员猛敲了桌子
In this game, when the experimenter knocked on a table,
孩子要轻敲来回应
the child had to tap in response.
当实验员轻敲 孩子则猛敲
And when the experimenter tapped, the child knocked.
这很像两个人进行基于手势的对话
It was a lot like two people having a gesture-based conversation.
当孩子伸出他们的舌头时
And when the kids stuck their tongues out,
看上去像舌头也想要加入
it seemed like the tongue just wanted to join
并开始说话
in the party and start speaking.
在这个游戏中
During this activity,
孩子们的舌头大部分时间伸向右边
the kids ’ tongues also poked out to the right side most of the time,
这也许暗示了在大脑的左边
which might point to an activation in Broca ’ s area
布罗卡式区的运转
on the left side of the brain.
如果这些语言形式的游戏
If all these conversation-like games, gestures,
手势和舌头的伸出真与同一大脑部位有关
and tongue protrusions really do relate to the same brain area,
它可以帮助证明语言是由手发展到嘴
it could help support that language evolved from our hands to our mouths.
即使这意味着
And even though it would mean
如今 伸出舌头并无令人信服的目的
that sticking out your tongue doesn ’ t have a compelling purpose today,
但它仍使人着迷
it’s still fascinating.
当然这是目前唯一一个
Of course, this study has been the
实验这个想法的研究
only one so far testing this idea,
所以它需要更多探索
so it ’ ll need more research.
想要它被证实
For it to be proven true,
我们需要证明伸舌头的频率和
we ’ d need to show that the frequency and timing of tongue poking
手部动作的节奏十分吻合
matched up really well with the timing ofthose hand movements.
不管是
Whether it ’ s
为了防止大脑被打扰还是我们进化的残留
because of a distracted brain or a hangover from our evolutionary past,
舌头确实伸出来了
tongue poking happens.
但无论它发生的原因
But no matter why it does, you have
你需要承认 在无意识的癖好中
to admit that, in terms of unconscious habits,
这一个并不令人讨厌
this one ’ s pretty endearing.
谢谢观看本集《SciShow》
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow!
特别鸣谢艺术家众筹网
And a special thanks to Patreon
赞助人卡尔博尼耶博士问我们这个问题
patron Dr. Carbonnier for asking us this question,
和其余给本期话题投票的赞助人
and to the rest of our patrons for voting on it.
如果
If you ’ d
你想问我们问题或者投票选出下一个问题
like to ask us a question or vote on the next ones we answer,
你可以前往 patreon.com/scishow
you can go to patreon.com/scishow.
[闭幕曲]
♪ OUTTRO ♪

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视频概述

本视频将为你解答,你无意识的伸舌头动作的背后,究竟蕴含什么样的道理和知识。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Verna

审核员

审核员 AF

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gu0MDqg3m5M

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