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为什么越到考试你越浪?|自我妨碍 – 译学馆
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为什么越到考试你越浪?|自我妨碍

Why Do You Sabotage Yourself Before a Big Test? | Self-Handicapping

[♪ 片头 ]
[♪ INTRO ]
让我们假设
Let’s say you’ve got a
明天你会有一场重大的考试
big test tomorrow, and it’s a
考试成绩占最终成绩的很大比重
big chunk of your final grade.
你该做什么?
So what should you do?
学习?
Study?
或者……疯狂刷网飞视频?拖延
Or… binge watch some Netflix? Procrastination,
宿醉
getting a hangover,
或者听声音大到聒噪的音乐
or putting on music so loud that it’s hard to concentrate
这些看上去都是非常适合破坏你的成功的可靠方法
— those all seem like pretty solid ways to sabotage your success.
所以心理学家认为它们是自我妨碍的表现
So psychologists consider them forms of self-handicapping. Now,
这么看来 自我妨碍好像
self-handicapping seems
很糟糕……但就算这样我们仍然在这么做
like a pretty bad idea… but we still do it anyway.
并且当事情做不好的时候
And that could be because it’s
它是一个好用的借口
a handy excuse if things don’t
你可以责备
go so well, so you can blame
任何除你和你的本领以外的其他事情
something other than you, and your own skills.
自我妨碍很常见 但有些人的问题尤其严重
Self-handicapping is fairly common, though some of us do it more than others.
相关调查已经定义了两种类型
And research has defined two types.
第一类是行为式自我妨碍
There’s behavioral self-handicapping,
当你对聚会这样的事很上心
when you actively do things like go out to a party,
而讨厌学习之类的事情的时候
or don’t do things like study,
你正在破坏你自己成功的机会
which hurt your chances of success.
第二类是自陈式自我妨碍
Or there’s claimed self-handicapping,
比如自述自己的劳累、焦虑或者生病
likesaying you’re tired, anxious, or sick.
这些都是当事情已经发生并且
These are reports of something that happened or
你感觉无法做到最好的时候会有的说辞
how you’re feeling not your best.
自我妨碍不仅仅适用于学校的考试
Self-handicapping doesn’t just apply totests at school, either.
它可以突然出现在任何你的行为需要评估的时候
It can pop up anytime your performance is evaluated,
不管是运动 工作还是
whether it’s sports, work, or
上传一个YouTube视频
uploading a YouTube video,
或者当你在玩Jackbox的时候为了给你的朋友留下印象
or coming up with funny captions when you’re playing Jackbox
试图想出好笑话题的时候
Games and trying to impress your friends.
大多数的科学家认为自我妨碍可以使你免于遭受负面评价
Most scientists think self-handicapping has to do with protecting yourself from negative things.
它基本上就是个借口
It’s basically an excuse
所以你不会感觉到你自己有多糟糕
so you don’t feel bad about yourself or so other people
其他人也不会认为你的行为有多么糟糕
don’t think badly of your performance.
举例来说 1996年在麦迪逊Wisconsin大学的
For example, one study by researchers at the University
调查者进行了一项研究
of Wisconsin — Madison in 1996
让135名大学男生在开始学习之前
had 135 male undergraduates play a pinballgame.
做了一个弹球游戏
Before coming to the study,
在这之前 他们已填写过有关个人习惯的调查问卷
they had filled out a survey about their habits, so researchers
所以调查人员知道他们的自我妨碍类型更倾向于高还是低
knew if they tended to be high or low self-handicappers.
例如 若你同意像
For instance, if you agree with statements
“当我做错了 我的第一反应
like “ When I do something wrong, my first
是责怪环境”这样的说辞 还有像
impulse is to blame the circumstances ” and “ I
“如果我更努力 我可以做得更好”这样的陈述
would do a lot better if I tried harder, ”
你可能更接近高自我妨碍
you might be higher on that scale.
在这个研究中 一些参与者被告知
At the study, some participants were told
他们正在和其他房间中的参与者竞争
that they’d be competing against another
谁将得到最高的分数 但另一些人没有被告知
person in another room for the highest score. Others were not. Then,
然后 在玩弹球之前
they were all given a chance
他们都得到了一次锻炼反应时间的机会
to practice a helpful reaction time task before playing pinball.
意料之中的是 高自我妨碍者总体来说练习得比低自我妨碍者要少
As expected, high self-handicappers practicedless than low self-handicappers overall.
因为高自我妨碍者
But of the high self-handicappers who
认为他们正在竞赛中而且正在被评估
thought they were competing and therefore being evaluated,
所以没有训练很多次的他们最快乐
the folks who didn’t practice very muchhad the most fun.
他们也认为他们自身有更高的能力
They also rated their own abilities higher.
所以行为式自我妨碍就是
So behavioral self-handicapping seemed to let
让自我妨碍者把任何失误归咎于练习的缺失
them blame any mistakes on not practicing,
而不是他们真正实力
rather than their actual abilities.
他们可以维持一种
They could hold on to some sort of “
“我玩弹球挺不错的 看
I’m not terrible at the pinball, like,
我是不断在进步的!”这样的感觉
I still am variable!” feeling.
这种逻辑会在很多情境下发挥作用 比如
This logic makes sense in a lot of situations. Like,
比起认真准备却考砸
it’s harder to handle a bad score
前一晚看一整季的鲁保罗变装皇后秀
on a math test when you tried really hard,
而考砸的你
than if you watched a whole season
可能更容易接受不好的分数
of RuPaul’s Drag Race the night before.
你可能会因为熬夜迟到感到抱歉
You might regret staying up so late,
但你至少可以继续认为数学不难
but at least you can still feel like you’re okay at math.
心理学家已经发现 当自我妨碍来临的时候
And psychologists have found how you feel matters
你怎样去感觉很重要
a lot when it comes to self-handicapping.
如果你自我感觉是良好的
For instance, if you feel positively about yourself,
在评估的时候可能就不会感到害怕
being evaluated might not be so threatening.
但更低自尊的人们在行为和自陈方面
But people with lower self-esteem are more likely to self-handicap,
更容易陷入自我妨碍
both behavioral and claimed.
低自我效能人群身上会发生同样的事情
The same goes for people who are low
——自我效能是一种相信你自己可以做好的信念
in self-efficacy — the belief that you can do a task well
——这些人的自我同情水平更低一些
—and people who are lower in self-compassion
——自我同情指的是当面对困难的时候善待你自己 接受你的错误
— treating yourself with kindness when faced with difficulties, and accepting your mistakes.
在你的一天中可能也会有某些
You might also have a certain time
状态最好的时候
of day when you tend to be at your best. Like,
比如 你的生物钟可能让你更像一只
your biological clock might make you more
百灵鸟或猫头鹰
of an early bird or a night owl.
但是事实确实你更可能在巅峰状态出现
Turns out, you’re more likely to behaviorally self-handicap
行为式自我妨碍
at your peak time.
这是可以说得通的 因为
Which kind of makes sense, since if you ’
如果你是一个夜猫子而早上八点钟有一场考试
re a night person and have an 8am exam,
你就已经编好了一个借口
you’ve already got a built-in excuse.
但以上这些说法使得自我妨碍听起来像是
But all this talk about excuses makes self-handicapping sound like,
绝对糟糕的行为
definitely a bad thing.
一些研究证明
And some research has found
尽管自我妨碍确实事出有因
that we tend to negatively judge people who claim self-handicaps,
但我们还是容易贬低那些在言语上自我妨碍的人
though it does depend on the excuse.
例如 1995年美国犹他大学做了一项实验
For instance, one 1995 experiment
实验要求一群大学生写有趣的漫画旁白并互相评分
at the University of Utah had undergrads write funny cartoon captions and rate each other.
结果是你没有努力想出来的旁白会比因吃了感冒药
And saying you just didn’t try very hard was worse
而无精打采的人想出来的旁白更糟糕
than saying that cough medicine made you tired.
所以 我们有可能阻止自我妨碍出现吗?
So can you do anything to stop self-handicapping?
好消息是 我们或许有可能
The good news is yes, probably,
尽管因为它很复杂 还有很多研究需要做
though more research needs to be done because it’s a complicated thing.
2011年有一项包含三组研究的实验
A set of 3 studies in 2011
让德国学生自我报告分数
looked at German students who self-reported goals.
研究发现你可以
And those researchers found that you can sort
对抗自我妨碍
of protect against self-handicapping if you
如果你关注的不是取得一项成就 就像取得好成绩之类的
focus on mastering a skill, rather than on achievement,
而是收获一项技能
like getting good grades.
基本上 只要做一些
So basically, just do things the exact opposite
跟教育体制恰好相反的事就可以了
of how the education system is set up.
当你面对学习
When you focus on learning, getting something wrong
犯错不是大问题
isn’t such a big deal, because
因为犯错实在太常见了
it’s normal to make mistakes.
自我肯定可能也可以有所帮助
And self-affirmation might also help.
主动把错误归咎于自己
Thinking about something that matters to you,
或者想想你过去做得好的事情
or how you’ve done well at something else
可以帮助你感觉更好 减轻自我妨碍的影响
in the past, can help you feel better and not self-handicap as much.
所以只要看着镜子 说 “汉克
So just looking in the mirror and say, Hank,
你看起来棒极了”
your eyebrows look great.
举个例子 2005年
For example, one 2005 study
罗格斯大学做了一项研究 研究要求一群学生做了业务能力倾向测验
at Rutgers University had students do a Business Aptitude Test.
通过让他们写出自己更在乎的事情比如社会问题
Doing a self-affirmation by writing about something important to them,
或经济问题
like social issues
进行自我肯定 用来减少自我妨碍
or economics, reduced self-handicapping
所以自我妨碍很常见 并且可能
So self-handicapping is common and maybe not a
不那么糟糕 但它确实
completely bad thing, but it can definitely
让你更难努力
make it harder to do your best.
但这里有很多工作方法
But there are also a bunch of ways to work
让你感觉更好 而不是沉溺于网飞
on feeling good about yourself, instead of binging shows on Netflix.
感谢观看这期《心理科学秀》
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow Psych;
我们认为你很棒!
we think you’re great!
事实上 如果没有你的观看或赞助
In fact, this channel couldn’t exist
这个视频不会存在
without you watching, or without our patrons on Patreon!
所以如果你想要支持我们
So if you want to and have the
请转到patreon.com/scishow 我们必将
means to support us, we sure would
不胜感激
so appreciate you going over to patreon.com/scishow.
或者你可以点击订阅 并期待我们两周一更的视频
Or you can just click subscribe and stick around for videos twice a week!
或分享本期视频给其他人吧
Or share this with people that you think, well,
不一定非得是这个视频
maybe not this video, because you might,
因为他们可能认为你在质疑他们
they might think you are diagnosing them.
所以不要像这样说话:“嗨 你有这个问题
So don’t be like “ Hey you have this problem,
快检验一下!”除非
check it out! ” Unless,
你们是非常亲近的朋友
you are very close friends.
[♪ 结束]
[♪ OUTRO ]

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