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你会感觉到别人正在看着你吗? – 译学馆
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你会感觉到别人正在看着你吗?

Why Do You Feel Like You're Being Watched?

[片头音乐]
[INTRO♪]
你感觉过有人正在看着你吗?
Ever feel someone watching you?
可能 你尽管没有看着他们
Like, you just know they’re staring,
但是 就是知道他们正在注视着你?
even if you’re not looking at them?
这并不是什么超自然的感知力
It’s not some psychic sense,
却同样挺酷的
as cool as that would be.
心理学研究者们称之为 注视察觉能力
Psychology researchers call it gaze detection—
它能够让你意识到人们或动物正在看着何处
your ability to recognize where a person or animal is looking.
尽管 它对人们是如何起作用的 我们并没有完全了解
And even though we don’t have all the answers about how it works in humans,
但是 对于人们大脑中正发生着什么 科学却给出了一些非常棒的证据
science has provided some pretty good evidence as to what’s going on in your brain.
各种科学研究表明
Various studies suggest that
人类大脑对注视会优先处理
gaze is processed preferentially by the brain,
这意味着 比起其他类型的刺激
meaning it’s processed faster and more
“注视”会得到更加迅速和准确的处理
accurately than some other kinds of stimuli.
特别是当你受到注视的时候
Especially when it’s on you,
这被称为 直接注视
which is called direct gaze.
你大脑的某些区域会形成一张巨大的神经网络
Your brain has a pretty big network of areas that
这些大脑区域 负责从不同方面获取人们的面部信息
handle different aspects of getting information from faces.
比如 这些大脑区域会
Like, there are regions that respond
对脸部的形状 朝向或者特定特征之类的 做出反应
to shape, orientation, or specific features. That sort of thing.
当涉及到注视察觉能力的时候
And when it comes to gaze detection,
科学家们认为 这张神经网络中存在着这样的一个区域
scientists believe an area in this network called
被称为“颞上沟”或简称为“STS”
the Superior Temporal Sulcus, or STS,
它负责准确地告诉你 其他人正在注视着哪儿
is responsible for telling you exactly where someone else is looking.
一些科学研究对猕猴大脑颞叶的类似区域进行了检查
Studies looking at a comparable area in the temporal lobe
这些研究发现 某些大脑细胞会
of macaque monkeys found cells that are tuned to the
对头部和注视方向的目标 作出反应和调整
orientation of both the head and gaze direction.
例如 1985年进行的一项研究 让一些猕猴注视另一些猕猴的面部
For instance, one study from 1985 had macaque monkeys look at faces of other macaques.
然后 研究者们发现 被检测的182个细胞中有63%的细胞
And they found that 63% of the 182 cells that were probed
对头部方向的变化作出了反应 从而表现得活跃
fired in response to changes in head direction.
同事 在63%的这些细胞中 有超过一半的细胞 对注视方向作出了反应
More than half of that 63 % also responded to changes in gaze direction,
而有一小部分细胞则对“直接注视”作出了反应
and a few responded to direct gaze.
研究人员们只能假设认为 人类大脑“颞上沟”也起着类似的作用
Researchers assume the Superior Temporal Sulcus works similarly in humans,
因为 做相同类型的实验
since performing the same sort of experiments
会给活人造成太大的创伤
in living humans is too invasive.
当你看着某人的时候
Now, it’s easy enough for your brain to figure out
你的大脑很容易知道这个人正在注视着哪儿
where a gaze is pointed when you’re looking right at someone.
当你不能清楚地看到某人的眼睛
What about that feeling of being
却也能够感觉到被某人注视着 这又是怎么回事呢?
watched when you can’t see someone’s eyes clearly?
当你周边视觉模糊到无法看清楚事物细节的时候
In your peripheral vision, the resolution becomes low enough that details are harder to see
比如 某人的瞳孔 相对眼白而言 处在哪个位置
—like, where someone’s pupils are with respect to the whites of their eyes.In this situation,
你的大脑就会用“头部方向”替代“直接注视”
your brain starts to take head orientation
作为新的判断依据
as evidence of direct gaze instead.
研究者们在2015年对这个课题进行了研究
Researchers are studying this in 2015
测试了 实验参与者 对不同朝向面部的注视方向 能有怎样的辨识程度
Test that how well participants could identify the gaze direction of faces with different orientations
面部的朝向 是以偏心率表示的
presented at different eccentricities.
研究者们 让实验参与者 笔直地向前注视
They had participants stare straight ahead,
那么 笔直朝前的面部 就具有0度的偏心率
so a face straight ahead would be 0 degrees eccentricity,
而与双肩保持在一条直线上的面部 则分别具有正负90度的偏心率
and in line with their shoulders would be plus and minus 90 degrees eccentricity.
研究者们普遍发现 人们在6度偏心率的范围内
And they generally found people could accurately tell
可以准确说出别人正在注视着哪里
where a gaze was directed up to 6 degrees eccentricity.
而超过了6度偏心率的范围
Which isn’t that much before
就无法说得准确了
we kind of start to suck at it.
一般来说 距离0度偏心率越多 对注视的识别 就会越不准确
Overall, gaze discrimination got less accuratefarther away from zero degrees.
这很好理解
Which makes sense,
因为 距离0度偏心率越多 意味着 模糊的周边视觉就会越多
because farther from zero degrees means more blurry peripheral vision.
随着眼睛看到的细节 变得更加模糊
As details of eyes became less clear,
实验参与者 对“头部方向”信息 会更加地依赖
participants relied more on head orientation
好弄清楚自己被注视的情况
to figure gaze out.
这样来判断 结果并不可靠
This swayed their answers,
不见得每次都是准确的
and wasn’t always accurate.
2015年一项类似实验的结果表明
the results of a similar study from 2015 showed that
实验参与者 如果在周边视觉中 发现有面孔正朝向着自己
if faces in the periphery were pointed right at participants,
就更有可能会认为 这张面孔正在直接注视着自己
they were more likely to assume it was a direct gaze.
大体上说
So,basically,
如果 有人正好在你的视线以外面向着你
if someone just out of your line of sight is facing you,
你的大脑就会认为 他们正在注视着你
your brain assumes they’re looking right at you.
如果他们转过头
If their head is turned,
那么 无论他们实际上正在看着哪儿
you’re more likely to assume they’re not looking at you,
你都会更有可能认为 他们并没有看着你
no matter where they’re actually looking.
“背后的人正在看着我” 只要有这种毛骨悚然的感觉
And as far as the spooky feeling of “ that person behind
我就能够感受到
me is looking at me”, I can feel that thing,
对于这种感受 现在也就有了解释
there is an explanation for that too.
尽管 人们脑袋后面 并没有长眼睛
Even though nobody actually has eyes in the backs of their heads.
结果 我们还是可能常常认为有人正在看着我们
Turns out, we might just tend to assume people are looking at us.
且总是这样认为的
All the time.
在2013年的研究中
In research from 2013,
科学家们给实验参与者 展示了一系列被杂色滤镜不同程度处理过的面孔和眼睛的图片
scientists showed participants a series of faces and eyes under different levels of
杂色滤镜 大致上能让图片变得模糊
noise filter that basically made them look blurry.
一些图片十分清晰
Some were really clear,
让“注视”识别起来 更加容易
which made it easier to read the gaze.
而 另一些图片则被较好地遮挡住
And others were pretty obstructed,
让“注视”推测起来 更加困难
so they were less easy to guess at.
研究者们 要求实验参与者
The researchers asked participants to judge
判断这些面孔是否正在注视着他们
whether or not the faces were looking at them.
研究者们发现 在这些面孔和眼睛图片被杂色遮挡住的实验中
And they found that in trials where the faces andeyes were obstructed by noise,
实验参与者 会更有可能认为 自己正在被注视着
participants were more likely to perceive the gaze as directed at them.
科学家们认为 这个现象在现实生活中意味着
In real life, the scientists took this to mean that
在你无法得知人们正在注视着哪儿的情况下
in situations where you can’t know where people are looking
比如 当天黑时
—like when it’s dark,
当有人在你背后时
when someone’ s behind you,
或者 当人们带着墨镜时
or they’re wearing sunglasses—
你的大脑会不由自主地让你感觉自己正在被注视着
your brain is automatically making you feel watched.
我是说 得了吧!大脑
And I mean, come on brain!
我们虽然挺有吸引力 但是还不至于
We’re interesting, but not enough to
整天地 每天地 被所有我们没法看到眼睛的人注视着
be watched all day, every day, by everyone whose eyes we can’t see.
我这样一说 可能听起来这个设想有那么一点可笑
It might sound like sort of a silly assumption if I put it that way.
但从进化的角度上说
But evolutionarily speaking,
知道什么时候有人或有事物正在注视着你
knowing when someone or something is looking
可能是非常重要的
at you could be really important.
因为 他们可能正打算向你发起进攻
They might be planning to attack,
所以 保持警惕是最好的选择
so it’s best to be on guard.
除此之外 知道你是否正在被注视着 也能让你进行社交互动
Besides that, knowing if you’re being watched also lets you interact socially.
要是有人想要引起你的注意
If someone wants your attention,
无论是你的朋友 还是你的孩子
whether it ’s your friend or your baby,
对于正在注视着你的人 你如果已经不知不觉间在观察搜寻了
it ’s way easier to notice if you’re already unconsciously
那么 要注意到他们 会更加容易
scanning for people looking at you.
很抱歉 你并不是有特异功能
So sorry, you’re not psychic.
你只是拥有了一套颇为不错的 全面且精心设计的“注视察觉系统”
You just have a solid and comprehensive and well-designed gaze detection system.
这正好挺酷的 不是吗?
And that’s just as cool, right?
感谢你在《心理科学秀》与我们一道学习
Thanks for learning with us here on SciShow Psych,
特别感谢Patreon众筹平台上我们的赞助者们
and thanks especially to our patrons on Patreon
正是他们的赞助 让所有这些视频能够完成制作
whose support makes all these videos possible.
你要是想加入我们的社区
If you want to join our community,
可以登录网址patreon.com/scishow.
you can go to patreon.com/scishow.
或者 把这个视频分享给 发誓自己对注视有超能感知力的朋友吧!
Or share this video with your friend who swears that he has a spidey sense for being watched.
[片尾音乐]
[OUTRO ♪]

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