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为何妻子要冠上丈夫的姓? – 译学馆
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为何妻子要冠上丈夫的姓?

Why Do Wives Take Their Husbands' Names?

我的父母为我取了父亲的姓
I have my father’s surname which I was given by my parents.
这背后的原因是在我父母结婚时
The reason behind this is because when my parents got married,
我母亲将自己的姓换成了我父亲的姓
my mother took on my father’s last name,
并因而失去了陪她从小到大的姓氏
in turn losing the surname that she grew up with.
这并不是一个个案
And this wasn’t a one-off case.
纵观全球 通常的习俗是
Across the globe, the common tradition is that
当一个男人和一个女人结婚时
when a man and a woman get married,
妻子会放弃自己的姓 而换上丈夫的姓
the wife removes her surname and takes on the surname of her husband,
继而传给子孙 以确保父辈姓氏的传承
in turn give that surname to their children and allowing that surname to carry on.
那这种传统究竟是从何而来 何时出现的呢?
So how and why is this the case? When did this tradition start?
姓氏具有许多名字
The name that follows your first thing takes on many names:
姓氏 姓 别名 家族姓氏
surname, a last name, a second name, a family name.
但我们所感兴趣的名字 是娘家姓和婚后姓
But the names for this name we are interested in: a maiden name and married name.
娘家姓是指女性结婚之前所用的姓
The term maiden name is the name for a woman’s surname before she is married,
而婚后姓是指女性婚后所用的姓
while married name obviously being the name a woman takes on when she is married.
随着姓氏的更改 女性通常也会更改她的头衔
Along with surname changes, a woman also traditionally changes her title when she marries too.
三个常用头衔有 小姐 太太 女士
Three popular titles are Miss, Mrs and Ms.
小姐通常适用于未结婚的女性
Traditionally Miss is the title used for an unmarried woman,
太太用来称呼已婚女性
Mrs is used for a married woman,
女士则被用来称呼前两者都不想使用的女性
and Ms is used interchangeably for a woman who doesn’t want to use either of the other two.
无关婚姻状态
Regardless of their marital status,
女士在五十年代和七十年代的女性运动时期 变得盛行
Ms grew in popularity for the 50s and 70s during women’s movements,
因为这个头衔应该跟先生拥有同等的尊重
as the title should have the equal respect of Mr.
男性也可以有娘家名
It is possible for men to have maiden names too.
我读过一篇文章 关于一个姓豪的男士 因为自己的妻子姓氏很特别
One article I read was about a man with surname Howe took his wife’s surname,
所以将自己的姓改成了
surname Verhovek,
妻子的姓 弗霍韦克
due to his wife having a rather unique surname,
妻子的家庭里只有姐妹
and she came from a family of just daughters,
而他又有兄弟来传承自己的姓
and he had brothers to carry on his name.
他们决定以弗霍韦克为姓 携手继续婚姻
They decided that the Verhovek’s name would carry on in their marriage,
用他以前的姓氏来做娘家名
making his previous surname Howe his maiden name
据他和我所知
from what he and I could gather is that
这个姓还没有其他的叫法
there isn’t another name for this.
它不能叫父辈名或其他
It’s not called a paternal name or anything.
娘家名有源头可循 寓意为最早 首先 原始
Maiden has roots and was like earliest, first or original.
所以男性的原名被称为娘家名也是合理的
So it makes sense for a man’s original name to be called a maiden name, too.
尽管有这个丈夫冠妻子之姓的先例
Though in that after entering case, the husband took his wife’s surname,
更流行的习俗 依然是妻子冠丈夫之姓
and the more popular tradition is that wives take their husbands’ names.
那么这个传统究竟是从何而来的呢
So where did this tradition start from?
关于源头 我们需要追溯到古代的英国
For this, we need to go back to England in the past.
首先 以前的姓氏并没有很重要
To start with surnames weren’t all that important,
中世纪大多数英国人 只知晓彼此的名
most people in medieval England were known by just their first name
那是在洗礼中被确定的基督教名
which was cemented in Baptism and what they’re also known as Christian names.
然而 随着人口的增长 记录每个人的名字变得越来越困难
However, as the population grew, it got harder to keep track of everyone.
姓便因此而生
So surnames were formed too,
姓氏可以来源于父母的部落 你的职业
with surnames coming from places like a parent herd, your occupation,
或是出生地
or place of birth.
在十九世纪的英格兰 妻子冠丈夫之姓的习俗
It was around the ninth century in England where this custom of women taking their husbands names
变得普遍
became more commonplace.
也是在这个时期 立法者们会更加维护婚姻中的独立人格
It was in this time lawmakers fought more into personhood in marriage.
在那一段时期里
And at this time of history,
女性并没有现如今那么多的权益
women didn’t have the rights they do now.
女性在生活中 会被归属于男人的一部分
Woman would considered one with the men in their life,
她们被赋予父亲的姓 且只有等到结婚了
they took their father’s name and only changed it to
才能再换成丈夫的姓
their husband’s name when they will wear it.
这便是有夫之妇的法律身份
This was known as coverture.
它意味着 在一个女性结婚后 她的存在便消失了
And it meant that when a woman got married, her set for existence disappeared,
丈夫和妻子被当成一个整体对待
and the husband and wife retreated as one entity.
从法律的角度看
In the eyes of the law,
女性会被当做男性生活中的延伸部分
women would be seen as an extension of the man in their life
无论那个男性是她的父亲还是丈夫
whether that be their father or husband.
当然了 随着时间的推移
Of course, as time has gone on,
有夫之妇的相关法律在逐渐被削弱
this law of coverture has dwindled,
作为女性 我们必须保留自己的姓氏
we’re women, we ought to keep our own names.
婚后改姓也是一个很繁琐的事情
Changing your name after marriage also appears to be a fair bit of work
比如 你要去办结婚许可
involving getting your marriage license,
然后在所有需要的地方改掉姓氏
then changing in all the appropriate places,
比如你的护照
such as on your passport,
你的社保卡 驾照 银行账户
social security card, driving license, bank accounts,
此类种种
all that kind of stuff.
我可以理解 为什么越来越多的女性推迟改姓
I can understand how more women might be put off taking their husbands names,
尤其是当她们像我一样懒 不爱处理书面文件时
especially if they’re as lazy as me when it comes to sorting our paperwork.
时代更迭 女性也不再需要
As well as there being enough time passing for women to no longer
冠上丈夫的姓氏
have to take their husbands’ surnames.
结婚已向更多人敞开大门
Marriages have become more accessible to many more people.
在世界上的许多地方 男性可以与男性结婚 女性可以与女性结婚
In many parts of the world, men can marry men and women can mary women
这非常棒
which is awesome.
但是 当然了 我也不禁去想
But of course that got me thinking –
同性婚姻里 有什么更名的传统吗
what are the name changing conventions when it comes to homosexual marriages?
我读过一篇2015年的文章
Well, from one 2015 article I read, it seems
在同性婚姻里 好像还没有什么
there aren’t any sort of traditions when it comes to name changes
改名的传统
in homosexual marriages.
有些伴侣会保留自己的姓名
Some couples keep their own names,
有一些会改成对方的
some took on other names,
有一些会用横线连接彼此的姓
and some double-barrelled their names.
下方的链接里 还有那篇文章很多有趣的观点
There’s a lot of interesting points in the article which will be a link down below.
有些人出于工作原因 会保留自己的姓名
Some choose to keep their name for business reasons.
毕竟他们是凭自己原有的姓名 而被大众所知
Tt’s the name their audience know them by.
有些人会完全换成伴侣的姓
And others change their name to their partner’s names solely
因为他们的更好听 也更容易发音
because it sounded nice and was easier to pronounce.
一对夫妇 玛莎韦斯特和坦尼娅卡莉芙
One couple Martha West and Tanya Khaliv asked
举办了一场足球赛
chose to host a football match.
然而 那篇文章说到了足球 然后嘘…嘘…
Well, the article says soccer but sh…sh.
赢了的那一队 就可以在婚礼上让对方冠上自己的姓
The winning team would have their name used as the name in their wedding of marriage.
那场比赛最后打了平手 而她们也还在纠结用谁的姓
The match ended in a tie and the name is still being decided on.
前尘种种 造成了2019年今日的局势
All of this leads us to now 2019
除非看此视频的 是来自未来的你
unless you’re watching this in the future,
如果你真的是 也别忘了给我点个赞 订阅一下
and if you are don’t forget to like and subscribe.
婚后妻子冠丈夫之姓的现状是怎么的呢
What is the current state of wives taking their husbands names after marriage?
看起来越来越多的女性开始想要保持自己的娘家名
Well, it seems that more women than ever are deciding to keep their maiden names.
大约有20%的女性之多
With roughly 20% of women choosing to do this
尽管80%的女性依然遵循着此传统
though that does leave eighty percent of women taking the tradition.
这也没什么
And that’s fine too.
我并不是该告诉你 该怎么做
I’m not here to tell you what to do.
但如果你即将步入婚姻 并想要打破此传统
But say if you are getting married and want to break the tradition,
你可以做以下几件事
well, here are some things you can do –
越来越多的人认可保留自己的姓
keeping your own name is a more acceptable option now more than ever.
当然了 像我之前提到的
But of course there’s the option I mentioned earlier
丈夫冠妻子的姓 也开始流行
where the husband takes their wife’s surname which is too becoming more popular.
BBC的一篇文章就采访了那些不走寻常路
One article from the BBC spoke with men who took their wives names
冠妻子之姓的丈夫
and how they were treated for taking this seen as untraditional option.
一位男士说 他父亲认为 这是他家族所蒙受的最大侮辱
One man said that his father said it was the biggest slap in the face for him in the family.
讲真的 这种丈夫冠妻子之姓的做法
Honestly, this concept of a husband taking his wife’s name
以及其所带来的耻辱
and the stigma that surrounds it
完全值得拿独立的视频来讲
could be a video into itself.
另一种方式是 双方将彼此的姓氏
There’s too the option of taking our double-barrelled surname
用一个短横线相连
where both names are hyphenated as one name.
当然了 这可能会带来谁的名字在前面的争议
But of course with that comes the argument of whose name goes first.
另一个很有趣的观点集中在 孩子的姓名以及婚姻里所持有的姓名
A really interesting thing I read focus more on the name of your child and the name taken on during marriage,
那便是融合彼此姓氏的观点
and that’s the idea of blending both surnames together.
如果一方父母叫史密斯 另一方叫琼斯
So if one parent is called Smith and the other called Jones,
已婚夫妇就可以取史琼斯作为姓
you could take on the surname Smones as a married couple,
并用其命名自己的孩子
and in turn name your child that
形成一个全新的美妙的姓氏
leads into a new or awesome name.
传统这东西很奇怪
Traditions are weird things.
即便思想最开放的我们 也很难轻易摒弃传统
Even the most open mind of us can find it hard to let go of certain traditions.
我的生活中有一些传统 我是拒绝摒弃的
I know there are certain traditions in my life that I refuse to let go of.
这或许值得我们仔细思考
But maybe it’s something we need to think about more in life.
没有人会因为破坏了传统而被逮捕
No one gets arrested if you break a tradition.
但我们还是觉得摒弃它们很难
But still we can find it so hard to let go of them.
而其中一个或许要讨论的有趣传统便是
And perhaps one of these interesting traditions to discuss is
妻子冠以丈夫的姓
the tradition of a wife taking her husband’s name.
谢谢所有每月
Thank you to all my patrons
支持Name Explain的订阅者
who support Name Explain on a monthly basis.
名称解释栏目依靠像你一样的粉丝
Name Explain depends on small monthly donations
每个月的小贡献而运营下去
from fans like you to help keep the channel running.
一个月只要两美元就能帮上大忙
Just the small amount of two dollars a month helps out in a huge way.
我们会对您开放名称解释赞助商专有内容
Grants you patron exclusive Name Explain extras,
并且在这里标注您以及其他好人的名字
and gets your name here with all these awesome people.
谢谢
Thank you.

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视频概述

为什么结婚后妻子要摒弃自己的姓氏,换成丈夫的?这种习俗是从何处从何时而来的呢?经历史演变,如今人们对于冠姓的认知又有何种改变呢?

听录译者

ABC

翻译译者

第六营养级

审核员

审核员XY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rw8qQWa3iys

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