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我们为什么会出汗? – 译学馆
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我们为什么会出汗?

Why do we sweat? - John Murnan

终点近在眼前 你突然加速
The finish line’s in sight and you put on an extra burst of speed.
当你的步伐加快 呼吸也随之加深
As your legs pick up the pace,your breathing gets deeper,
心跳加速 汗流不止
your heart pounds faster, and sweat pours over your skin.
这些汗是如何突然出现的?
How does this substancesuddenly materialize
其真正的作用又是什么?
and what exactly is its purpose?
在一些情况下我们会出汗:
There are a number of scenariosthat can make us sweat:
吃辣的食物 情绪焦虑和生病
eating spicy foods, nervousness, and when we’re sick.
而运动大概是我们最熟悉和最常见的情况
But exercise is probably the most familiarand common.
人在运动时 出汗是对运动的回应
In that case, sweating happensas a response to movement
在细胞深处触发
triggered deep inside your cells.
当你的步伐加快 肌肉运动量随之增大
As you increase your pace,your muscles work harder,
肌肉消耗能量的需求也增加了
increasing their demand for energy.
细胞的呼吸作用参与其中
A process called cellular respiration
将葡萄糖和氧气转化为ATP
consumes glucoseand oxygen to form ATP,
ATP被誉为细胞的能量货币
the energy currency of the cell.
呼吸作用大多发生在线粒体中
Much of this process takes placein structures called mitochondria.
你运动的越多
The more you move,
线粒体为你的身体供能越多
the harder mitochondria work to supply your body with energy.
但所有这些工作都要付出代价
All this work comes at a cost, though.
细胞分解ATP的同时 也释放出热量
As the cells break down the ATP,they release heat.
这些热量会刺激温度感受器
The heat stimulates temperature sensorsthroughout your body.
感受器通过肌肉细胞探测正在产生的
Those receptors detect the excess heat being produced
多余热量
by your muscle cells
并且将这些信息传递给下丘脑
and communicate that informationto the hypothalamus,
下丘脑可以调节人体体温
which regulates body temperature.
它通过交感神经系统
The hypothalamus responds by sending signals out
传递信号
through the sympathetic nervous system
到皮肤上的汗腺
to the sweat glands in your skin.
汗腺遍布人体全身
These are distributed all over the body
尤其集中分布在手掌
with especially high concentrationson the palms of your hands,
脚底和头部
the soles of your feet, and on your head.
汗腺接收下丘脑传递的信号
When a sweat gland first receivesthe signal,
围绕在细胞卷曲基部的液体
the fluid surrounding the cellsin its coiled base
含有大量的钠和氯化物
contains high amountsof sodium and chloride.
细胞将这些离子泵入中空管
The cells pump these ionsinto a hollow tube
穿过汗腺
that runs through the sweat gland. Then,
因为管内部比外部盐分更高
because it’s saltier insidethe tube than outside,
水通过渗透作用进入管内
water moves into the tube by osmosis.
汗液的主要分泌物
As what’s called the primary secretion builds up
在导管底部形成
in the bottom of the tube,
水压将其推往导管笔直的部分
water pressure pushes it up into the long straight part of the duct.
在汗液渗出皮肤之前
Before it seeps onto the skin,
管内细胞尽可能地重吸收汗液中的盐分
cells lining the tube will reclaim as much salt as possible
以保证汗液排出体外
so the process can continue.
汗液中的水分会吸收你体内的热量
The water in sweat absorbsyour body’s heat energy
当它到达皮肤表面时会蒸发
and then evaporates off of youwhen it reaches the surface,
从而降低体表温度
which in turn lowers your temperature.
该过程称为蒸发降温
This process,known as evaporative cooling,
是我们祖先适应环境的重要一环
was an important adaptationfor our ancestors.
这种降温效果不仅在运动过程中很有帮助
This cooling effect isn’t only helpfulduring exercise.
对其它一些情况也有
We sweat in many other scenarios, too.
如吃特别辛辣的食物会让一些人大量流汗
Eating particularly spicy food makes some people sweat profusely from their faces.
这是由于香料刺激了
That happens because spices trigger the
大脑中相同的神经反应
same neural response in the brain
激活了温度感受器 逐步的提高体温
that activates temperature receptors,which usually respond to increased heat.
出汗还是应激反应的一部分表现
Sweating is also part ofthe fight or flight response
由心理压力造成 例如向某人提出约会
stimulated by stressful scenarios,like asking someone on a date
或者面试工作
or interviewing for a job.
这是由于肾上腺素刺激肌肉活动
This happens because adrenalinestimulates muscle activity
并引起血管扩张
and causes blood vessels to widen,
两种反应都会增加热量并引起出汗
two responses that increase heatand trigger the sweating response.
我们生病时也会出汗
And sweating also occurswhen we get sick.
发烧出汗是因为
When we’re feverish,we sweat because infections
感染物刺激下丘脑 导致肌肉运动增加
stimulate the hypothalamusto increase muscle activity,
从而释放更多的能量作为热量
which in turn releasesmore energy as heat.
使你的整体体温升高
That increases your overall temperature,
不利于感染物生存 这是一种保护机制
a protective mechanism that makes your body less habitable for infectious agents.
就像跑步出汗可以帮助你身体散发热量
Like with running, sweating helpsyour body vent that heat.
当你不再发烧或者赢了运动比赛
When the fever’s overor you’ve won your race,
你的温度感受器会感到热量减少
your temperature receptorssense the decrease in heat
下丘脑会结束你的出汗反应
and the hypothalamus bringsyour sweating response to an end.
某些情况下 如跑完步
In some cases, like after a run,
下丘脑也会向你的身体发出信号
the hypothalamus also signals to your body
提醒你需要补充已经流失的水分 所以
that you need to replenish the waterthat you’ve oozed out. So,
当你推动自己达到下一个目标时
when you’re pushing yourselfto reach that next goal,
可以将汗水看做量身定制的校准器
you can think of sweat as your body’svery own calibrator,
帮助你更进一步
enabling you to go that extra mile.

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视频概述

出汗是人体降温的一种自然现象,也是人体的一种自我保护机制。本文简单的介绍了我们为什么会出汗,以及出汗的机理。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Seline

审核员

审核员 LD

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fctH_1NuqCQ

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