ADM-201 dump PMP dumps pdf SSCP exam materials CBAP exam sample questions

我们为什么会打喷嚏 – 译学馆
未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

我们为什么会打喷嚏

Why Do We Sneeze?

科学秀
我们为什么会打喷嚏?
Everyone, everywhere occasionally sneezes.
任何人在任何地方都偶尔会打喷嚏
It’s something humans—and even some animals
不是只有人类会打喷嚏 有些动物
like cats, and dogs, and chickens —just do.
比如说猫 狗和鸡 也会打喷嚏
But why? Why do we sneeze?
但为什么我们会打喷嚏?
If your answer is that it’s our nose’s way of
如果你的回答是 这是鼻腔
getting rid of irritants and excess mucus,
清除刺激物和过量鼻涕的方式
you’re right — but only partly.
你是对的 但只对了一部分
See, scientists have long thought that sneezing —
长期以来 科学家们认为打喷嚏
technically known as sternutation — is a reflex.
严格来说叫喷嚏——是一种反射
When irritants—like dust, dander, germs,
当灰尘 皮屑 细菌
or pollen —get into your nose,
或花粉等刺激物进入鼻腔
your brain sends out a signal to get rid of it.
你的大脑会发出清除信号
That same signal goes out if an excessive amount of
如果你感冒了 鼻腔里有过多的鼻涕
mucus is hanging out in there too — say, if you have a cold.
大脑也会发出同样的信号
This signal triggers a deep breath,
这一信号会触发一次深呼吸
which you hold in your lungs for a moment.
气流会在你的肺里憋一会儿
And while you’re holding your breath, your chest muscles clench and pressure builds.
憋气会使得胸腔肌肉收紧 压力累积
Your tongue is forced to the roof of your mouth …
舌头被迫抬到上颚
and you breathe out fast
然后用打喷嚏的方式 以很快的速度
through your nose in the form of a sneeze.
让气流从鼻腔里呼出
This is the old, short, and still correct answer
就“我们为什么会打喷嚏?”这个问题而言
to the question “Why do we sneeze?”
这个答案简短陈旧 但也没错
But according to a paper published in 2012
然而2012年发表于FASEB的
in the journal FASEB,
一篇文章指出
there’s a little more to it than that.
事情没那么简单
And it all has to do with cilia,
这一切都跟纤毛有关
the tiny, hairlike paddles that
纤毛是头发似的微型船桨
line our noses and sinuses.
在鼻腔和鼻窦里形成一层膜
In the study, a group of researchers
在研究中 来自宾夕法尼亚大学的
from the University of Pennsylvania
一组研究人员
basically grew a tiny nose.
算是做出个了小鼻子
They took cells from the nostrils of several healthy adults
他们从一些健康成年人的鼻孔里取出细胞
and grew them in an incubator for a few weeks,
放到了培养皿里培养了几周
until the cells formed the same type of lining
直到这些细胞生成有纤毛的膜
that’s in your sinus, complete with cilia.
这跟你鼻窦里的膜是一样的
Then, to mimic a sneeze,
之后 为了模仿喷嚏
the scientists puffed air on the lining.
科学家们对着这层膜喷了些气
They noticed that the burst of air triggered the cilia
他们注意到气流的冲击促使纤毛
to kick into high gear,
开始以很快的速度
moving back and forth repeatedly
反复前后摇动
for up to several minutes after the trick sneeze.
在感受到假喷嚏后摇了好几分钟
So, why were they so active for so long?
那么 为什么纤毛会活跃这么久呢?
Any potential irritants would have been cleared out already.
所有可能的刺激物都早就被清掉了
Well, the triggered cilia were acting as a broom,
被触发的纤毛像是把扫把
basically resetting the entire nasal environment,
基本上是在重设整个鼻腔的环境
not just the parts where there’d been irritating gunk.
而不是只清理有烦人粘液的那些部分
Just like computers do, biologists think that
生物学家们认为 我们的鼻腔
our nose needs a reboot every once in a while…
和电脑一样 需要时不时地重启一次
and its kinda-furry restart button is made of all those cilia.
而鼻腔毛毛的重启键则由纤毛构成
But it turns out that not everybody’s sneezes
但结果并不是所有人的喷嚏
actually reboot their nose.
都会重设整个鼻腔
In addition to looking at healthy people’s cells,
除了观察健康人群的细胞
this same group of scientists took a peek at
这群科学家还观察了
the cells of people suffering from sinusitis,
鼻窦炎患者的细胞
which causes inflamed sinuses
鼻窦炎会导致鼻窦发炎
and general nasal discomfort—
以及整个鼻腔都不舒服
runny nose, nasal congestion, all that stuff.
比如说流鼻涕 鼻塞这类似的
They discovered that when they puffed air onto
向鼻窦炎患者的细胞组织
the tissue of the sinusitis sufferers,
喷气后 他们发现
the cilia didn’t beat faster.
纤毛没有快速摇动
Meaning that chronic sinusitis might have to do
这意味着慢性鼻窦炎可能跟
with cilia that can’t properly reset post-sneeze,
纤毛在打喷嚏后不能很好地重设鼻腔有关
and that knowledge might help
而知道了这个或许就能
researchers developing treatments for it.
帮助研究人员开发新疗法
Thanks for asking, and thanks especially to our patrons on Patreon
感谢提出这个问题的人 特别感谢Patreon上的支持者们
who keep these answers coming.
让答案源源不断地出现
If you’d like to submit questions to be answered,
如果你想要提交问题 得到解答
or get these Quick Questions a few days before everyone else,
或者是比大家早几天看到这些简短的问题
go to patreon.com/scishow.
请浏览patreon.com/scishow
And don’t forget to go to youtube.com/scishow and subscribe!
还有 别忘了到youtube.com/scishow点订阅哦!

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

介绍了打喷嚏的一般原因,以及鼻腔内的纤毛跟打喷嚏以及鼻窦炎两者之间的关系。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

oxw

审核员

审核员 RN

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KdypW7gglp8

相关推荐