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人类为什么微笑 – 译学馆
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人类为什么微笑

Why Do We Smile?

人类为什么微笑?
One of our species’ trademark expressions is the smile.
微笑是人类标志性的表达方式之一
And smiling is a form of communication.
也是一种人与人交流的方式
It’s not just about how you feel,
微笑不仅代表你的感受
but also how you want to make others feel.
也表现了你想让他人拥有的感受
We use smiles to put each other at ease, to bring people together.
我们通过微笑让彼此更加自在亲密
So it may seem a little weird that we show off our teeth when we want to be friendly,
但仔细想来 通过露出牙齿来表示友好显得有些奇怪
because teeth are for biting.
因为牙齿是用来撕咬的
And many other mammals do bare their teeth as a way to make a threat.
许多其它哺乳动物通过露出牙齿来威慑敌人
Just think about the snarl of a wolf or the open-mouth display of a baboon.
例如狼的嚎叫 或者狒狒张开血盆大口
It’s a shorthand way of saying, like,
都是在简洁地威胁对方
“Back off if you don’t want these to go inside of you!”
“如果不想让这排牙齿咬住你 就滚开!”
It’s pretty unusual that our smile evolved as a sign of friendliness.
因此 我们用微笑作为友好的标志 显得不同寻常
But there may be some clues to why it happened
不过 在我们灵长类近亲的行为中
in the behavior of our primate cousins.
似乎有解答这一问题的线索
See, many primates show off their teeth for nonaggressive reasons.
许多灵长类哺乳动物会出于非侵略性的目的露出牙齿
For example, rhesus macaques make what’s called a silent bared-teeth expression as a sign of submission.
例如 恒河猴会通过一种无声露齿行为表示屈服
When a dominant or aggressive opponent is threatening them,
如果受到一个强势的或凶残的对手威胁
they’ll show off their teeth as a signal that they don’t want any trouble.
弱势者会露出牙齿 表示自己不想惹麻烦
In other primates, including some macaques and baboons,
对于我们其它的近亲而言 例如某些猕猴和狒狒
the same toothy expression shows up while the monkeys
在它们相互打招呼 理毛及拥抱时
are greeting, grooming, and embracing each other.
也会出现这种露齿行为
And one of our closest cousins, chimpanzees,
同样 我们的另一个近亲黑猩猩
show a clear connection between the silent bared-teeth expression and social bonding:
展示了它们的无声露齿行为与社会关系之间的关联
the more they flash their teeth at each other, the better they get along.
一对黑猩猩相互展露牙齿的次数越多 它们会相处得越好
If that sounds familiar, it’s because it is also true in humans!
如果你觉得很耳熟 这是因为对人类也一样
Smiles make us feel more comfortable with each other.
微笑让我们对彼此感到更舒服
Studies have found that if you show people pictures of faces,
研究表明 如果向人们显示各种面孔的照片
they’ll rate smiling faces as more generous and agreeable.
他们会认为那些微笑的面孔更慷慨 亲切
A study in 2001 had 120 participants
在2001年的一项研究中 120名参与者
pair up to play a simple game of trust.
被两两配对 参加一个简单的信任游戏
The players could choose to be selfish and win some money,
参与者可以选择独自赢取一些奖金
or work together and win even more money.
或者合作以获得更丰厚的奖金
The catch was that if either player chose to be selfish,
同时 如果任一参与者选择为一己私利
they could end the game early and take their payout
他可以提前结束游戏并获取奖金
while the other player got much less.
同时对方只能获得很少的奖金
But they’d both win more money
但如果两人都相信对方会做出正确的选择
if they trusted each other to make the right moves and not be selfish.
且不会自私 他们都将获得更丰厚的奖金
The players never met each other, though;
参与者彼此并不能碰面
they were just shown a picture of their partner and had to decide if they trusted them.
他们只能看到一张对方的照片 以此判断是否信任对方
And the study found that people were more likely to trust a smiling face.
结果显示 人们更愿意信任那些微笑的面孔
Along those same lines, a 2007 study took a look at
类似地 2007年的一项研究揭示了
how people smile when they share.
人类在与人分享时会如何微笑
In the case of that study, the experimenters gave pairs of people money to share between them—
实验者将钱交给成对的参与者 供他们分享
because, like, I guess involving money is a good way to get genuine behavior out of people.
之所以用钱 我认为是因为钱更能反映人们真实的行为
And they found that people generally smiled more
结果表明 比起单纯的聊天时
when they were sharing than when they were just talking.
人们在与人分享时更愿意微笑
What’s really cool is that the participants were also asked
更有意思的是 参与者们也要
to report on their own emotions during the study.
报告他们在这一过程中的心情
And surprisingly, the amount that people smiled was mostly
出人意料的是 人们微笑的次数
unrelated to their feelings of happiness, anger, or other emotions.
与他们的开心 愤怒等心情基本无关
It wasn’t that sharing made people so happy that they couldn’t help smiling,
这表明 人们微笑并不是因为分享的过程让他们开心
it was that smiling was a signal of cooperation.
而是一种合作的信号
So smiling really is about more than just feeling happy.
因此 微笑不仅仅是开心的表现
It’s about how we feel around each other
而是表达了我们对他人的感受
and how we want others to feel about us.
以及我们期望他人对我们的感受
So it seems like, over our evolution,
因此 在我们进化过程中
this toothy expression may have gone from a threat to a signal of non-aggression
这种露齿行为 似乎从表示威慑过渡为和平的象征
to the friendly, cooperative smile that we know and love today.
最终变成我们今天表示友好与合作的微笑
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow!
感谢收看本期《科学秀》
We are grateful for all of our patrons on Patreon for making episodes like this possible.
同时感谢来自Patreon的赞助者 让我们的视频得以面世
And a special thank you to Esther, for asking us this question!
此外 特别感谢提出了这个问题的Esther
If you would like to support content like this, or even submit a question of your own,
如果您希望支持此类节目 或者想向我们提出您的困惑
head over to patreon.com/scishow to learn more.
请前往 patreon.com/scishow 获取更多资讯
As always, thank you for watching!
再次感谢您的收看!

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视频概述

人类为什么会微笑?这个看似简单的问题却不是那么容易回答的。本期《科学秀》就带你揭开微笑的神秘面纱,展示背后的进化渊源。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

乏善

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zUvpzIN7p1k

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