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我们为什么会服从权威?——米尔格伦实验 – 译学馆
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我们为什么会服从权威?——米尔格伦实验

Why Do We Obey Authority? - The Milgram Experiments

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有个显而易见的事实:坏事总会发生
Let’s start with the obvious: bad thingshappen.
每当坏事发生
When they do, it’s often
我们总会对探索其发生的原因
in our best interest to have an open discussion about
乐此不疲
why they happened.
但有些事坏到 主流文化对其避之不谈
But, some things are so bad that mainstream culture deems them unspeakable.
你无法想象自己会去做这些事情
These are the acts that you don’t even want to imagine doing.
你甚至不相信你能做出这些事情
Maybe, you don’t believe your capable ofdoing them.
我们把这些称之为罪恶
These acts are what one might call evil.
同许多人一样 你或许认为
Like many people, you might think
罪恶只存在于天生变态或性情残暴的人身上
that evil emerges out of a psychopathic or sadistically nature.
然而 事实远不止如此
But, unfortunately, this just isn’t so.
世人曾在二战中目睹了罪恶——大屠杀
The world witnessed evil during WW2 and, morespecifically, the Holocaust.
当阿道夫·艾希曼
When Adolf Eichmann –
作为组织大规模屠杀中主要负责人之一
one of the main figures responsible for organizing the systematic
被送上审判台时 说自己只是在服从命令
killing of millions – was put on trial, hesaid that he was just following orders:
这让人不寒而栗
this thought is frightening.
也使我们重新思考什么是罪恶
This statement makes you rethink the ideaof evil.
罪恶不再是少数人的“杰作”
It transforms evil from being the work
而变成了多数人的“产物”
of a small minority to a product of the vast majority.
或许 当人们停止思考
Perhaps, evil is what happens
一味遵从他人命令时
when people stop thinking for themselves and just obey
罪恶就诞生了
the orders of others.
如此说来 罪恶与我们自身共存
If so, the capacity for evil lies within allof us.
下面是斯坦利·米尔格拉姆著名的服从实验
This is the context in which Stanley Milgram conducted his renowned experiment on obedience;
这个恐怖的实验告诉我们
it’s a chilling experiment that reminds us
极致的善
that with the ability for great good comes
也会变成最深的恶
the ability for great evil.
为了能真正理解米尔格拉姆实验
To really understand the Milgram experiments,
我们把这个测试分成两个
it helps to split it into two tests:
表层实验和本质实验
the fake one and the real one.
咱们先从表层实验开始
Let’s start with the fake one.
参与者共有三类
There are 3 participants:
实验者 老师和学习者
the experimenter,a teacher, and a learner.
米尔格拉姆研究对象的重点在于“老师”
The subject that Milgram was studying was always given the role of teacher.
而学习者则由一名演员充当
The learner was an actor that was in on theexperiment.
为了掩盖本质实验
The actual study was disguised
实验者声称表面实验是为了测试
as a fake study that was said to be testing the effects of
惩罚在学习中的作用
punishment on learning.
具体来说 他们通过不同程度的电击
Specifically, they were testing the effects of administering electric shocks
测试其对学习者记忆词组能力的影响
on a learner’s ability to memorize a list of word-pairs.
以“交际花”和“肥宅”为例
For example, green-flower or couch-potato.
研究对象的任务是教给学习者一列词汇
The subject was tasked with teaching the learnerthis list.
老师先浏览
The subject would go
词汇表 然后将单词成对读出
through the list once and then read off one of the words in a pair.
如果学习者猜对单词的意思
If the learner guessed the word correctly,
老师就会继续读下一对单词
the subject would move on to the next pair.
倘若他们猜错的话
However, if they guessed incorrectly,
老师就要对学习者进行电击
the subject was supposed to administer an electric shock.
电击从15伏特到450伏特不等
Shocks went up in 15V increments all the way up until 450V.
同时有相应的标签
There were also corresponding labels
标明电击的强度
indicating the intensity of shocks
从轻度电击到XXX级别逐步上升
ranging from slight shock to simply XXX.
表层实验背后的真实目的
The real test underlying this fake one was
是观察老师们愿意采取的
to see how far subjects would be willing to
电击强度的极限是多少
go in administering shocks before they stopped.
在300伏特的电击下
At the shock level of 300V,
老师会听到学习者重击墙壁
the subject would hear the learner pounding on the wall and
并开始拒绝回答问题
begin refusing to answer.
当电压达到315伏时再次听到捶打墙壁的声音
A second pound was heard at 315V.
实验的本质是将研究对象置于
This test was designed to put the subject
遵从自我道德或屈服权威
in a tug of war between obeying their own
的激烈斗争中
morals and obeying an authority figure.
如果研究对象开始犹豫
If the subject began hesitating,
实验者会用4个督促装置中的一个促使他们继续
the experimenter used 1 of 4 prods to get him to continue.
他们设置了一个强度表——从要求到命令
They ranged in intensity from simple requeststo orders.
试验的结果是令人震惊的:
The results of the test were shocking:
65%的参与者执行了最高程度的电击
65% of participants administered the maximum level of shocks.
电压在300伏以内 所有的参与者都服从电击指令
All participants obeyed until 300V.
米尔格勒姆实验
Various forms of Milgram’s
一直以不同形式被复制
experiment have been replicated several times and continue
但结果并未有所不同
to produce similar results.
尽管改变实验条件 仍会得到不同程度的服从
Although, modifying different conditions seemsto produce varying levels of obedience.
遍览了许多文学作品后
After going through a lot of the literature,
问题不在于我们是否服从
the question isn’t do we obey,
而是我们何时屈服 为何服从
but when and why?
我们最好从米尔格拉姆
I think the best place to start is
对这次实验的解释开始讨论
with Milgram’s interpretation of the experiment.
但是在你弄懂这个实验之前
But, before you can understand it,
你要知道米尔格拉姆将服从视为一种天性
you have to understand his view of obedience as a natural phenomenon.
米尔格拉姆认为人类进化出了
Milgram believed that humans evolved the
组织社会阶层的能力
capacity to organize into social hierarchies because
这是一个巨大的生存优势
it was a huge survival advantage.
我们能成为一个有力的团体 而不再单打独斗
Instead of competing as individuals, we could work together as a powerful group.
要想创建不同的阶层
In order to create these hierarchies,
人们必须放弃对外部资源的掌控:
humans must be capable of giving up control to an
这些资源可能是一个人或想法
external source: this could be another personor an idea.
如果两个独立的人放弃了对第三方的控制
If two independent people give up control to a third person,
第三者就能与整个群体进行协调
the third person can coordinate the entire group.
比如
For example, imagine a group
车主放弃自主控制转而听命于交警
of cars giving up control to the commands of a traffic cop.
他们放弃了个人的自主权
By giving up their personal autonomy,
使得交通能够协调运转
traffic can flow in a more coordinated fashion.
但如果他们都我行我素
However, if they all act on their own,
交通就会徒劳无功
traffic will flow less efficiently and accidents are
且事故频发
more likely to happen.
你身边有各种各样的社会阶层
There are social hierarchies all around you.
米尔格拉姆认为
When you enter a hierarchy,
当你进入一个阶层时 你的心态会发生重要转变
Milgram believed that you’d undergo a critical shift in mindset
即从一个自主个体变成一个代理人
from that of an autonomous individual to thatof an agent.
当你进入一个阶层并且成为一个代理人
When you enter a hierarchy and become an agent,
你便不再认为你要对自己的行为负责
you no longer feel responsible for your actions
而应对你的上层负责
but responsible to the one above you.
这种新的意识就叫做代理人心态
This new mindset is known as the agentic state.
为了理解这种心态 我们将其分成几个部分
To understand this state, it helps to separateit into a few components:
代理能力 代理原因
the capacity for agency, why we become an agent,
代理人特征
the features of an agent,
维持代理人状态的因素
and what keeps us from exiting the agentic state.
米尔格拉姆认为我们身上的代理人心态
Milgram argues that the agentic state has been socialized
是被家庭 学校 工作固化的
in us through family, school,
因为他们看重顺从
and work because these environments value obedience,
顺之有奖 违之受罚
reward us for it and punish us for disobedience.
那么 我们为何会选择成为代理人
So, why would you choose to become an agent?
假设你正在参与这个实验
Imagine that you’re taking part in thisexperiment.
你走进房间
You walk into the room.
你会做什么
What do you do?
如果你想要这个实验有效进行
If you want to the experiment to run effectively,
你需要与整个群体合作
you need to cooperate with the group.
维持群体合作最有效的办法之一
Recall that one of the most effective ways
就是任命一个领导人
to coordinate a group is to designate a leader.
然后就需要有个管理者 对吧
Someone has to be in charge, right?
由于你刚进入这个新阶层
Since this is a new hierarchy that you’re entering into,
你知道自己并非负责人
you know that you’re not in charge.
你将领导角色赋予了实验者
You assign that role to the experimenter
因为你把他们当成“合法权威”
because you perceive them to be a “legitimate authority”.
你欣然进入这个阶层
You willingly enter this hierarchy
因为它所听从指导思想是你所信任的
because it has a guiding ideology that you believe
并且你愿意称之为
in and would be willing to further:
进步和科学
progress & science.
最后 实验者会
Lastly, the experimenter makes demands
根据你所在阶层对你提出相应的要求
of you that are appropriate for the hierarchy that you’re in.
他只对实验内容提出要求 不理会不相关的事
He makes demands with regards to the experiment and not unrelated things.
他不会告诉你晚饭吃什么
He doesn’t tell you what you eat for dinner.
所有这些因素让你自愿地
All of these factors combined allow you to willingly
接受代理人的角色
accept the role of an agent.
既然我们已经变成了代理人
Now that we have become an agent,
那我们的心态又随之发生怎样的转变
what does this shift in mindset entail?
当我们处于这个阶层中
When we are in the hierarchy we tend
我们往往更重视上级的话 而非下级的话
to value the word of our superiors more than our inferiors.
继续举个例子
Continuing our example,
你是不会采纳学习者对于
you’re not going to take advice from the learner on how to
如何进行实验的建议
conduct the experiment.
因为你把他看作
That’s because you see him
同级或下属
at an equal or lower position on the hierarchy.
我们也可以把这个解释为阶级的使命
We also reinterpret our actions with regards to the mission of the hierarchy –
比如
for example,
科学的进步
scientific progress.
我们以代理人的身份自愿进入这个阶层
Keep in mind that we have willingly entered this hierarchy
相信它的指导并记在心里
as an agent with a belief in its guiding mission.
这就是代理人最重要的一个特点:
This leads to the most important feature of being an agent:
不再觉得要为自己的行为负责
we no longer feel responsible for our actions
而是要为执行上级的指令负责
but responsible to carrying out the wishes of the one above us.
但为何一旦我们进入了代理人状态便不能脱身?
However, once we’ve entered the agentic state, what keeps us there?
我们听到重击墙壁声 觉得良心不安
If we hear the pounding and feel we are doing something morally wrong,
为什么不能及时退出?
why can’t we leave?
米尔格拉姆给出的第一个解释是一致性
Milgram’s first reason is consistency.
也就是承认我们当前的行为是错的
To admit that our current action is wrong would mean
就意味着我们必须承认
that we have to admit that all
这一步之前的所有行为都是错的
of our actions leading up to this point werewrong.
——这是让人难以接受
That is a very tough pill to swallow
大多数人都会主动忽略
and most people would rather not do it.
第二个原因是我们认为自己对实验者有义务
The second reason is that we feel an obligation to the experimenter.
因为我们承诺过帮他 也支持他
We already made a commitment to help him and we want to uphold it.
第三个原因是
The third reason is
所有的参与者都会进入特定的情境
that all participants entered and began this experiment under a
并在特定的情境解释下开始试验:
specific situational definition:
我们知道我们服从的权威是合法的
we acknowledged that the authority was legitimate,
知道在社会阶层中
knew what he was doing,
他们所做的事比我们权威得多
and deserved to be higher up in the hierarchy than us.
而反对权威
Violating this, or any,
或者反对任何社会约定俗成的东西
socially agreed upon situational definition produces feelings of
都会使我们尴尬不安
awkwardness and discomfort
因为我们扰乱了社会秩序
because we aredisrupting the social order.
而且 违背权威人物
Lastly, there are feelings of anxiety
还会使我们产生焦虑感
associated with disobeying an authority figure.
社会教导我们要尊重权威
We have been socialized to respect authority figures
破坏我们理因遵守的社会秩序
and anticipating that we may have to disobey
会让我们感到焦虑
and disrupt the social order makesus anxious.
但是其他研究揭示了米尔格拉姆实验的不同方面
However, alternative studies shine light ondifferent aspects of Milgram’s studies.
一些研究表明
Some studies suggest something along the lines
一个值得信赖的专家促使
of a trusted expert that motivates subjects
研究对象继续服从指令
to continue obeying.
他们认为自己可以信任科学家
They believed that they could trust
因为科学家比他们对这个实验了解更多
that the scientist knew more about the experiment than
而且科学家能够负责任地设计实验
they did or that they could trust that a scientist would act responsibly.
基于个人生活经验
Based on an individuals life experience,
持有这些观点是合理的
these would be reasonable beliefs to hold.
实验者甚至告诉参与者们
The experimenter had even told participants
电击“疼痛但没有生命危险”
that the shocks were “painful but not dangerous”.
所以让实验者继续的真正理由是
So, the real reason they continued was
他们认为学习者
because they didn’t believe that the learner was
并未处于真正的危险中
actually in any real danger.
其他研究表明参与着者继续遵从权威
Other studies suggest that participants continued to obey
是因为他们认为自己
because they believed that they were
在践行有价值的思想观念
agents of a worthy ideology.
值得一提的是 有研究发现米尔格拉姆使用的四个按钮中
Specifically, one study found that of the four prods that Milgram used,
命令按钮作用效率最低
the one most resembling an order was the least effective and
劝说按钮作用效率最高
the one most resembling an appeal to science was the most effective.
也就是说 自身举动有益于实验的想法
In this case, it would seem that subjects are actually motivated by the belief that
激励研究对象去实施指令
their actions were for the benefit of science.
在以上两个解释中
In both alternative explanations,
参与者都认为他们做的是正确的事
participants would believe that they were doing the right thing.
非此即彼 一些人认为
Alternatively, some people believe
米尔格拉姆的实验具有戏剧性
that Milgram’s experiments were nothing but theatre and invalid
缺乏科学实验的严谨性
as a scientific experiment.
另一方面
On the otherhand,
许多人认为米尔格拉姆偶然发现了一些要点
many believe that Milgram did stumble upon something significant but
但是对于其到底是什么还没有共识
there isn’t universal agreement over exactlywhat that is.
我们不能从
We can’t make a jump
拉姆的实验结果直接跳到对
from Milgram’s results to explaining the actions of those involved
大屠杀的解释
in the Holocaust.
这个实验是在实验室里完成的
The experiment itself was conducted
所以我们必须谨慎地
in a lab setting and so we have to be careful about
用实验结果解释现实生活中相关的事宜
interpreting those results with regards toreal life.
但它确实给
However, it does provide us with a lot
不同环境下人们的不同行动
of food for thought about how different situations
提供了解释依据
can affect the actions we take.
米尔格拉姆的实验
Milgram’s experiments serve
对我们深深地提醒我们
as a critical reminder that a potential monster lies deep
每个人身上都潜伏着一头怪兽
within each of us
牢记这点会让我们受益匪浅
and it would be in our best interest to be mindful of that.
请让我知道你的想法
But, let me know your thoughts.
你觉得我们遵守权威的原因是什么?
Why do you think we obey?
说到成为权威人物
Speaking of authority figures,
最好的方法之一就是
one of the best ways to become one
拥有某个领域的相应知识和能力
is to have a legitimate knowledge and competence in a field.
生活中总有一些“价值不菲”
These are things that you have to work for
但我们仍要为之努力的事
and it doesn’t always come cheap.
谢天谢地
But thankfully,
Skillshare给观众提供两个月免费试用的机会
Skillshare is offering our viewers a two month free trial
你可以进入他们丰富的课程图书馆
that gives you access to their extensive library of courses
建立自己专业知识的框架
which you can use to build up your expertise.
他们的课程种类繁多
They have courses on a variety of topics
有动画 插画
including animation, illustration,
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writing, and even business.
我想推荐一个“如何鼓励他人”的课程
One course I’d recommend is “how to share ideas that inspire people”
由著名畅销作家西蒙·西内克主讲
by the best-selling author Simon Sinek.
我们能跟他学到成为一个有魅力的演讲者的诀窍
In it he teaches us how to become a captivating presenter.
如果你对这个课程感兴趣
If that’s something that you’re interested in,
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you can use a link in the description to get two free months of learning,
两个月后每月将收取十美元
and after that it’s just $10 a month.
感谢观看 下次再见
Thanks for watching and I’ll see you next time.

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视频概述

人为什么会服从权威,为什么会泯灭良知地去听从一个指令,本视频给出了答案。

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