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为什么人们说话时会打手势

Why Do We Move Our Hands When We Talk?

Linguistics isn’t just the study of words or sounds:
语言学不仅是对文字或语音的研究:
it’s the study of all the parts of conversation.
还是对交际过程中所有内容的研究
That includes gesture analysis, which looks at “co-speech gestures”:
包括对手势的分析 手势就像是“语言伴随者”
not posture or gaze, but winking, or sticking out your tongue,
它不是指你的站姿或眼神 而是指眨眼 吐舌头
or how arms and hands move alongside speech.
或说话时手和胳膊跟着摆动的这些动作
Just to be clear, this isn’t about sign languages:
先说清楚 我今天讲的可不是手语:
those are systematic and rule-governed with elaborate syntax and vocabulary.
手语是有详细语法规则的系统语言 有专有词汇
Signed languages are language, but gestures are “paralinguistic”.
手语是一门语言 而手势只是附属于语言
They accompany language.
它们伴随着语言出现
Gesture analysts make their job easier by talking about different categories of gestures,
分析师将手势分类 这样有利于他们的分析
which explain how they relate to meaning.
也解释了它们与其所表达意思的联系
And those are:
这些类型包括:
Number one: Iconic.
第一类 图像型
These gestures represent a literal object,
这类手势代表某个实际的东西
such as a flat surface, or a car weaving through traffic.
比如一个平面 或者一辆在车流中穿梭的车
Number two: Metaphoric.
第二类 隐喻型
Gestures that symbolize an abstract concept,
有些手势代表一个抽象概念
like “before” and “after”, or “working together”.
比如“之前” “之后” 或者“一起合作”
I do this a lot, and on this greenscreen those metaphoric gestures
我在屏幕前经常这样做 而且隐喻型手势
become a bit more literal with the help of graphics.
再加上一些图片更容易让人看懂意思
Apologies to my animator.
向我的动画设计师说声抱歉
Three: Deictic.
第三类 指示语型
That’s pointing to things,
就是特指某人某物
positioning yourself to people, or places or things,
向别人定位自己 或者指某个地方 某个东西等
like pointing behind the camera or ‘over there’.
比如指向镜头后面或者“那儿”
Number four: Pragmatic.
第四类 语用学型
Like offering the floor to someone,
比如给某人发言权
or “don’t bother me right now”.
或者“现在别烦我”
And finally, Beat.
最后还有节奏
The rhythm of gestures alongside the natural stress patterns of speech.
手势的节奏随着说话的语调而变化
All these categories–
所有这些分类……
I’m really self-conscious about every move I’m making now.
我真的对自己下意识的手势有点难为情
These categories can coexist as well:
这些不同类型的手势可以同时进行:
often gestures that are performed ‘on beat’
一般那些有节奏的手势
also fit into another category.
也可以纳入其它类型
There’s one more type of gesture that serves a slightly different purpose: emblems.
还有一类手势表达的意思稍有不同 就是象征型
Emblems are named gestures that don’t have to occur alongside speech to have meaning.
象征型手势可以单独出现表达某个意思
Like “thumbs up”.
比如“竖大拇指”
It has a meaning outside of the context of speech:
它在对话之外有其特定的意思
in a lot of the world, you can flash someone the thumbs up
如果你对人竖大拇指 在世界上大部分地区
and they’ll almost certainly understand that you’re signalling approval,
别人几乎可以肯定你是表示赞同
or that everything’s okay.
或者表示没问题
But if you swap the fingers, it doesn’t have the same meaning.
但是你要是换个指头 意思就变了
And even If I stick with the thumb,
就算我竖的是大拇指
if I change angle and arm position,
我换个角度和胳膊的位置
I’m trying to hitch-hike.
像这样就表示我想搭便车
The form of the gesture is tied to the established meaning.
手势的形式与它表达的意思相关联
It’s an emblem.
是一种象征
Which means it’s not universal. The meaning is learned.
就是说它不是普遍的概念 它的意思是习得的
And context can change it.
而具体语境会改变它的意思
That thumbs up?
竖大拇指
In some countries, it used to be rude,
以前在某些国家是很不礼貌的行为
but because of globalization, that’s no longer the common reading there.
不过随着世界全球化 这已经不是它的主要意思了
Although there will be people who remember its rude history
尽管一些人还记得它以前表示无礼
and could still interpret it the way.
并且还坚持这么认为
Emblems can change definition over time, they can be created, they can be forgotten.
象征性意义可随时间变化 可以赋予其意义 其意义也可能被遗忘
I would demonstrate that by dabbing,
我想拍拍手来演示一下
but I don’t want a GIF of that to haunt me for the rest of my life.
但我不想有这样一个动图来困扰我一辈子
So why do we do it?
那么 为什么我们说话要带手势呢?
What does gesturing actually accomplish?
比划手势到底能达到什么效果?
Well, first: redundancy for decoding and encoding errors.
第一 它是编码或者解码的冗余表现
Languages have agreement all over the place: there’s redundancy baked into everything.
世界各地的语言都有一个共性:到处都存在着语言冗余
Spoken language is ephemeral.
口语是短暂性的语言
Once something is said, it’s gone.
话一说完就完了
Those sound waves have moved on and they are not coming back.
说话产生的声波随即消失 不会再回来
Gesture is another form of redundancy:
手势又是另外一种冗余
it doesn’t matter if a loud [engine noise] drove by at just the wrong time–
不管是否有噪音(比如汽车的声音)不合时宜地出现
you may have figured out a vague idea of what was being said.
你基本上能大体知道别人说了什么
Next, you can show emphasis and importance.
其次 手势可以帮你强调说话的重点
Or if you’re explaining an abstract concept,
或者帮你解释一个抽象的概念
using metaphoric gestures to visibly explain things can help make it clear —
使用隐喻型手势可以更好地解释你的观点
either to your conversation partner, or just in your own head.
不管是对你的交谈对象还是就自己的大脑思路而言
And sometimes, it is so much easier and clearer just to point.
有时加上手势真的让人更容易理解你的观点
Gestures are important to communication,
手势在交谈中非常重要
and so important that if our hands and arms are unavailable,
重要到如果我们的手和胳膊无法使用
we will use our head, our eyes, our other limbs to compensate.
我们就会用脑袋 眼睛或者躯干的其它部位来补偿
Gestures can also show understanding of social norms.
手势也能代表对社交准则的理解
If you’re embarrassed to say something,
如果有件事你不好意思说出口
you can make that clear by covering your face or your eyes,
你就可以用捂脸或者捂眼睛来表示
or by doing the move that looks like
或者你做这个动作表示
“there are no paper towels or hand dryers in this bathroom so
“卫生间没有擦手纸或者烘手器
I guess I’ll just shake ’em dry”.
我只能把手甩干了”
Or if you want to distance yourself from what you’re saying you can use scare quotes,
如果你想和你说的话撇开关系 你可以做引号手势
or you can put a boundary around yourself.
或者在你周围画一个圈
Gestures also seem to help us get the words out in the first place.
手势可以帮你把话说出来
That’s why people gesture even when they’re on the phone,
这就是人们做手势 连打电话也要做手势的原因
and why people who have been blind since birth.
也是人们一出生就盲目地做着各种手势的原因
Gesture, gesture is intrinsic to language.
手势 手势是语言固有的属性
It helps us communicate more effectively and more elaborately,
它有助于我们更高效 更容易地交流
and to pass on information and feelings that are difficult to put into words.
来传递语言文字很难传递的情感信息
Gestures are basically emoji for the real world.
手势基本上可以看作是现实生活中的表情包
One of my co-authors, Gretchen McCulloch, has a book called Because Internet,
我的一位合著者Gretchen McCulloch写了一本书 名叫《因为互联网》
all about internet language.
里面全是网络用语
You can find out more at the links in the description.
点击提示框里的链接 可以查看详细信息

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视频概述

手势是语言特有的属性,它有助于你更好地传递信息,尤其是那些光用语言文字很难传达的信息。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

ZTT

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gGMkHzWXjI8

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