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为什么我们要接吻 – 译学馆
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为什么我们要接吻

Why Do We Kiss?

嘿 欢迎来到Vsauce 我是迈克尔
Hey, Vsauce Michael here.
二人嘴唇的亲密接触就是接吻
Attachment of two people’s lips kissing.
一般人一生中接吻的时间为
The average person will spend about 20,160 minutes
20160分钟
of his or her life kissing.
世界持续接吻时间最长的记录是
And the world record for the longest, continuous kiss is
58小时35分钟58秒
58 hours 35 minutes and 58 seconds.
但为什么我们要接吻
But why do we kiss?
我是说 仔细想想 这有点奇怪 对吧?
I mean, if you think about it, it seems kind of weird…right?
当然 现在接吻是
I mean, sure, today kissing represents
和睦 尊重 热情和爱情的象征
peace, respect, passion, love.
但人类史上最开始接吻的那两个人接吻时
But when the first two people in human history kissed,
他们会觉得这很恶心吗?
were they just kind of being gross?
那先从我们知道的开始说吧
Well, let’s begin with what we do know:
接吻的感觉很好 也对我们身体好
kissing feels good and it’s good for you.
一个热吻每分钟会消耗2到3卡路里
A passionate kiss burns about 2-3 calories per minute,
并释放肾上腺素和去甲肾上腺素到血液里
and releases epinephryn and norepinephryn into the blood,
让你心跳加快
making your heart pump faster.
接吻常通常被认为能
Kissing more often is correlated
降低坏胆固醇水平 缓解压力
with a reduction of bad cholesteral and perceived stress.
但这些积极效应广泛存在并非巧合
But these positive effects didn’t become widespread by accident.
为什么大家都变得爱接吻?
Why did brains and bodies that love kissing become so common?
有一个很流行的说法是 吃豆人的形状
Well, a popular story holds it that Pacman’s shape
起源于缺了一块的披萨的形状
was inspired by the shape of a pizza with a slice missing.
但是吃豆人的创作者 岩谷彻
But Toru Iwatani, the creator of Pacman,
承认道 这故事只对了一半
admitted that this was only half-true.
吃豆人的形状同样受到
Pacman’s shape was also inspired by
日本文字“口”的圆润版形状的启发
rounding out the shape of the Japanese character for “mouth.”
嘴巴和吃豆人最爱做的事——吃
And it’s mouths and Pacman’s favorite activity, eating,
结合到一起就让我们更接近接吻的核心了
which together bring us closer to the heart of the kiss.
进化心理学家们提出
Evolutionary psychologists have argued that
我们今天所熟知的“接吻”可能来源于“口对口喂食”
what we know today as “kissing” may have come from “kiss-feeding,”
即将咀嚼过的食物从一方口中喂给另一方
the exchange of pre-chewed food from one mouth to another.
鸟妈妈们正是以此闻名
Mother birds are famous for doing this,
许多灵长类动物也常被发现以此方式喂养
and many primates are frequently seen doing it as well.
不久以前 人类母子间也用这种喂养方式
Not that long ago, it was common between human mothers and their children.
事实上 在商业生产的幼儿食品
In fact, before commercially produced
或DIY幼儿食品指南唾手可得前
or DIY baby-food instructions were readily available,
这种方式很有道理
it made a lot of sense.
最近 艾丽西亚·西尔维斯通上传了一个她口对口喂食她孩子的视频
Recently, Alicia Silverstone uploaded a clip of herself mouth feeding her child.
对于一些人来说很奇怪 尽管它交换了唾液
It seemed strange to some people, but even though, yeah, it exchanges saliva,
这和任何与幼儿的接触一样 会传播病原体
which, like any contact with an infant, can transfer pathogens,
但是健康的母亲和孩子都会从中获益
heathy mother and healthy children can benefit from
因为口对口喂食提供了营养
the fact that kiss feeding provides nutrients.
包括碳水化合物 蛋白质 铁和锌元素母乳中并不会一直有这些东西的
Carbohydrates, proteins, iron and zinc, which are not always available in breast milk.
另外 成年人的唾液有助于预先消化食物
Plus, an adult saliva can help pre-digest the food,
使婴儿更容易吸收多种维生素如B12
making vitamins like B-12 easier for the baby to absorb.
所以嘴对嘴的接触也代表着亲近 信任和亲密
So, mouth-to-mouth attachment has a history of intimacy, trust and closeness.
你的唾液中也承载着有关你是谁 你的健康水平等信息
Your saliva also carries information about who you are, your level of health,
口腔黏膜能让类似睾酮的荷尔蒙渗透进来
And mucous membranes in our mouths are permeable to hormones like testosterone,
让接吻成为一种对潜在伴侣的“口味测试”
making a kiss a way to taste test a potential mate.
一次热吻可以作为对方是否能成为另一半的生物物证
A good kiss can be biological evidence that your kisser might be a good mate.
那么 作为一种择偶策略 史前热衷接吻
So, as a strategy for mate selection, pre-historic people who enjoyed kissing,
并接吻次数多的人可能做出更好的决定 挑到更好的伴侣 繁衍后代更成功
and did it more often, may have made better decisions, picked better mates, reproduced more successfully,
最终成为了一种常规留下了我们这些热爱接吻的人
and, eventually, become the norm. Giving us…us, people who love kissing.
任何婴儿都能看到远处来的好处
Any infant could have seen those benefits coming from a mile away,
即使婴儿的视力不怎么好
even though an infant’s vision isn’t that great.
从出生到四月大时 婴儿只能注意到
From birth to four months, babies can only focus on things about
距离自己的脸8-10英寸远的东西
8-10 inches away from their face
意料之中的是 这就是母乳喂养时
which, not surpisingly, is about the distance to their
婴儿到母亲脸庞的距离
mother’s face while breast feeding.
那么说到脸 尤其是那些正盯着我们看的脸
So, faces, especially those looking right at us,
往往是我们生命中最早专注并看清楚的事物
tend to be the very first things in our lives we can focus on and see clearly.
这也许能解释我们善于识别人脸的原因
This might explain why we are so good at detecting faces.
提及此事 人类在这方面的能力早已无法计量
Humans are off the charts when it comes to this,
事实上 我们往往会在没有脸的地方看到“脸”
In fact, we tend to see faces even when there aren’t any.
这叫“空想性错视”
It’s called “pareidolia.”
人类的合作意识太强了 以至于擅长识别人脸这一点完全说得通
Because humans are so cooperative, it makes sense for us to be good at recognizing faces.
更重要的是 我们能察觉到别人正盯着我们看
And, more importantly, detecting when someone is looking directly at us and clearly expressing
当我们看着别人时也能让别人清楚知道
when we are looking at someone else.
依靠不被发现来捕食的捕食者则需要用不明显的目光注视
A predator who lives by not being seen needs a gaze that’s less obvious. In fact, research
事实上 研究表明我们那么白的巩膜 也就是虹膜边界的区域
has shown that our surprisingly white scleras, the area that borders the iris, isn’t just
存在绝非巧合 这在人眼形态学中至关重要
an accident, but is a vital piece of human eye morphology that makes it easier for us
它让我们能轻易在一瞥间确定他人注视的方向
to ascertain the direction of someone else’s gaze at a glance.
我们大脑中还有令人惊异的注视方向判别网络包含许多神经元个体
We also have impressive gaze-direction networks inside our brains, containing individual neurons
当我们被人注视时 神经元会产生冲动
that fire when someone is staring directly at us,
但当别人目光转过一两度之后冲动就会消失
but that stop firing if the gaze shifts just a degree or two.
所以 确实 别人看你时 你就会感觉到
So, yeah, you can tell when you’re being watched.
我们人类对此非常敏感
We humans are quite sensitive to it even
即便是那些害怕被人盯着看 有“被盯恐惧症”的人
those of us with “Scopophobia,” the fear of being stared at.
但是 要说清楚 要让它起作用
But to be sure, in order for this to work,
其他人注视你的目光必须在你的视线以内
the other person’s gaze must be within your line of sight,
也就是你的视野范围内 即你能看到的范围
your field of vision, that is, you can see them.
否则 如果视线是从后方来的
Otherwise, if the stare is coming, say, from behind,
没有证据表明人可以感觉到他们被注视着
there is no evidence that people can tell they are being watched.
这种“超自然凝视效应”最终归到伪科学的范畴内
The “Psychic Staring Effect” falls within the realm of pseudo-science. No widely-accepted
尚无广泛认可的研究能证明它的存在
studies have ever found evidence that it exists.
有趣的是 人们伸长脖子东张西望
Anecdotally, what’s more likely is that the
来寻找盯着他们的人
the very act of rubbernecking to see who’s watching
反倒让人们视线交汇
causes people to look up, and for your gazes to attach.
但是 那种无人注视时的依恋又是什么呢?
But what about attachment when no one is watching?
关于婴儿对他们母亲的爱和依恋 其中一个解释是
one explanation for an infant’s love, attachment to their mother,
这与视觉或凝视无关 而是跟食物有关
doesn’t involve vision or staring, but, instead, food.
意思就是我们之所以爱母亲 是因为我们一出生
The idea is that we love our mothers because as soon as we are born, they are a source
她们就是维系生命的营养来源
of life-sustaining nourishment.
但如果营养来源并不是慈爱的母亲
But what if that nourishment came not from a loving mother
而是一位可怕的“电线妈妈”呢?
but from a scary “Wire Mother”?
在二十世纪五十年代 哈利·哈洛进行了一系列出名但颇受争议的实验
In the 1950’s, Harry Harlow conducted a series of famous, but controversial, experiments
实验在威斯康星大学麦迪逊分校进行 对象是猴子
on monkeys at the University of Wisconsin, Madison.
哈洛的发现对于我们对依恋的理解有重要影响
Harlow’s findings had substantial implications on our understanding of attachment.
而按今天的标准来看 他的实验很大程度上会被认为有悖伦理
But by today’s standards, his work would largely be considered unethical.
在他最著名的一个实验中
In one of his most famous experiments, Harlow separated
哈洛在小猴子出生时就把它们从母亲身边带走
young monkeys from their mothers as soon as they were born and stuck them in cages with
把它们关到有两个假母亲的笼子里:一个软软的 由布包起来 什么也不做的母亲
two fake mothers: a soft one wrapped in cloth that did nothing,
和一个由电线做成的冷血机械母亲 但是它会提供食物
and a cold mechanical mother made of wire that, nonetheless, did provide food.
但是尽管它为猴子提供食物
But despite being a cupboard mother the
小猴子却并不依恋它
the young baby monkey’s didn’t bond with her.
当哈洛团队成员用奇怪的装置吓小猴子时
When Harlow or his team scared the baby monkeys with a strange contraption,
猴子逃跑了 但没有去抱住那个提供食物的“电线母亲”
the monkeys ran and clinged not to their wire source of life-sustaining
而是那个柔软 令人想要拥抱 却无法提供食物的布妈妈
nourishment, but to the soft, cuddly and otherwise useless cloth-mother.
这说明了要培养依恋时
This suggested that warmth and comfort was more important than food when it came to nurturing
温暖和安抚比食物更重要
when it came to nurturing attachment.
哈洛还做了一个“排斥”母亲
Harlow also built a rejecting mother,
它会用压缩空气把小猴子推开
which used a blast of pressurized air to push baby monkeys away.
但是它们并没有去找其他能获得安慰的东西
But instead of finding another source of comfort, these monkeys
而是一直抱得更紧 比那些没被“排斥”母亲抚养的猴子抱得更紧
clung even tighter at all times than monkeys raised without rejecting mothers.
这让我为之震惊
And this is what blows my mind.
新生儿寻找温暖和安慰的本能是如此强烈
The instinct for warmth and comfort in newborn creatures is so strong
它不仅没被各种这些抵抗打击到
it not only resists attempts to frustrate it,
而是很反常地加强了
but is paradoxically strengthened by it.
埃克哈德·赫斯验证了这一理论
Eckhard Hess tested this by
他用电击来阻止小鸭子去跟随它们印随行为的对象
using electric shocks to discourage ducklings from following the the object they were imprinted on.
但这反而加强了印随行为 让它们比任何时候都跟得紧
But it only strengthened the behavior and made them follow more closely than ever before.
事实是 无论是“电线母亲” 还是“排斥”母亲
The fact that a “wire mother,” or a rejecting
或者在亲近母亲时受到的电击 都会产生更强的依恋
mother, or receiving electric shocks for attaching to your mother, would cause more attachment,
更多的爱和更强的依赖感 听上去似乎很矛盾
more love, more dependence, seems like a paradox.
矛盾能让我们有所收获 正如奥斯卡·王尔德所说
But paradoxes can teach us, as Oscar Wilde put it,
“矛盾就是那些用反常来吸引注意的真理”
“a paradox is the truth standing on its head to attract attention.”
这里所吸引我们的 是不确定性带来的结果
And what gets our attention here is the effect uncertainty can have.
1955年 A.E.费舍尔在小狗身上进行了一项实验
In 1955 A.E. Fisher conducted an experiment on puppies.
他的团队把小狗分成了三组
His team separated puppies into 3 groups.
第一组的狗狗们在接近研究人员时被温柔相待
Members of the first group were treated kindly every time they approached a researcher.
第二组的在接近研究人员是受到了惩罚
Members of the second group were punished for approaching the researchers.
而第三组的小狗则随机被善待或惩罚
And puppies in the third group were randomly treated kindly or punished.
它们在完全不知道之后会发生什么的情况下长大
They grew up never knowing what to expect.
它们的世界并非全是善举或惩罚
Their world was not a world of kindness or punishment
而是充满未知
but rather one of uncertainty.
让我们震惊的是 研究发现第三组小狗
What’s really chilling is that the study found that that group, the third group of puppies,
最终对研究人员的依恋最强 对研究人员爱得最深
wound up being the most attached to the researchers. The third group loved the researchers the
也是最依赖他们的一组
strongest and was the most dependent upon them.
盖伊·默奇称之为“极性原则”:
Guy Mirchi called this the “Polarity Principle”:
“压力 包括不确定性带来的心理压力 是依恋和爱的原料之一
“stress, including the mental stress of uncertainty, is an ingredient in attachment or love
可能表现出的仇恨(爱的对立面)也会某种程度上加深爱意”
and perhaps even manifestations of hatred (its polar opposite) somehow enhance love.”
不确定性 在心理上会产生一些最强烈的依恋和依赖感
Uncertainty, psychologically, can lead to some of the greatest feelings of attachment
我们生活中的好事坏事看似随机又不可掌控
and dependence. Good things, and bad things, in our lives often seem random and out of
因此我们常做出盲目热爱 接受不公平事物的反应
our control. So, it’s no surprise that we often react with blind love and acceptance
这也就不足为奇了 毕竟 除此之外我们还能做什么呢?
in the face of an unfair existence because, what else are we supposed to do? We are that
我们就是那第三组狗狗
third group of puppies.
但深究不确定的事 征服它
But investigating uncertainty, conquering it,
来作出最好的选择本身对我们有利
so as to make the best decisions possible is advantageous.
渐渐地 经历的事情多了 不确定的事转为阅历
So, over time, life has favored activities that turn uncertainty into knowledge.
并非所有人都是最适合你的伴侣
Not every person out there is the best mate for you,
但如果你并不在意选择哪个的话 一个吻 一个“口味测试”
but if it didn’t matter which one you picked, a kiss, a taste-test,
就并不重要了 这个吻也没必要感觉多好
wouldn’t be necessary, and it wouldn’t need to feel so good
或者带来多少乐趣
or bring us so much pleasure.
那么今天就走出去 给某人一个吻吧
So, go out there and kiss someone today.
一如既往地 感谢你们的观看
And as always, thanks for watching.
顺便说一下 明天我要去位于南美的欧洲航天局的太空港
By the way, tomorrow I am headed to the European Space Agency’s Space Port in South America
和欧洲新闻电视台一起在现场看火箭发射
with Euronews to watch a rocket launch in real life.
你们有任何关于太空和当今太空旅行的问题想问吗?
Do you have any questions about space or space travel today?
在下方评论区告诉我 我会向专家提出你的问题的
Let me know in the comments below and I will ask the experts your questions.

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关于人类为什么要接吻的小科普

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