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我们为什么会打嗝 – 译学馆
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我们为什么会打嗝

Why do we hiccup? - John Cameron

在1922年一只猪落在身上后 查尔斯·奥斯本开始打嗝
Charles Osborne began to hiccup in 1922 after a hog fell on top of him.
直到68年后他也没被治好
He wasn’t cured until 68 years later
并且他现在因打嗝的时间的长度成为吉尼斯世界纪录的
and is now listed by Guinness as the world record holder
保持者
for hiccup longevity.
同时 佛罗里达的年轻人詹妮弗·米
Meanwhile, Florida teen Jennifer Mee
可能保持着打嗝最频繁的记录
may hold the record for the most frequent hiccups,
在2007年 保持每分钟50次的打嗝持续了四周多
50 times per minute for more than four weeks in 2007.
因此是什么导致了打嗝呢?
So what causes hiccups?
医生指出一连串的打嗝常常是因为受到了
Doctors point out that a round of hiccups often follows from stimuli
能使胃扩张的刺激
that stretch the stomach,
比如吞下空气
like swallowing air
或狼吞虎咽
or too rapid eating or drinking.
其他人将打嗝和强烈的情绪
Others associate hiccups with intense emotions
或与对情绪的反应联系起来
or a response to them:
大笑
laughing
哭泣
sobbing
焦虑
anxiety
和兴奋
and excitement
让我们看看我们打嗝的时候会发生什么
Let’s look at what happens when we hiccup.
它以一次隔膜不由自主的痉挛或突然的收缩为起点
It begins with an involuntary spasm or sudden contraction of the diaphragm,
我们的肺下面长着大块的穹隆形肌肉
the large dome-shaped muscle below our lungs
用于吸入空气
that we use to inhale air.
这个现象几乎直接是由于声带突然关闭
This is followed almost immediately by the sudden closure of the vocal chords
和声带之间的开口作用下发生的
and the opening between them,
这个结构被称为声门
which is called the glottis.
隔膜的移动会引发空气的突然吸入
The movement of the diaphragm initiates a sudden intake of air,
但声带的关闭会制止空气进入气管
but the closure of the vocal chords stops it from entering the wind pipe
继而到达肺部
and reaching the lungs.
并且这会产生特征性的声音:“嗝”
It also creates the characteristic sound: “hic.”
时至今日 没有发现打嗝有什么功能
To date, there is no known function for hiccups.
打嗝似乎没有任何药理或生理上的好处
They don’t seem to provide any medical or physiological advantage.
为什么开始吸入空气会导致实际进入肺部时突然停止?
Why begin to inhale air only to suddenly stop it from actually entering the lungs?
解剖结构或生理机制的功能不明显
Anatomical structures, or physiological mechanisms, with no apparent purpose
让进化生物学家百思不得其解
present challenges to evolutionary biologists.
这种结构还服务于什么至今没有被发现的隐藏功能吗
Do such structures serve some hidden function that hasn’t yet been discovered?
或者它们是我们过去进化过程中的遗留
Or are they relics of our evolutionary past,
并曾经起到了某种重要的作用
having once served some important purpose
结果现在成了退化不完全的产物?
only to persist into the present as vestigial remnants?
一种想法是打嗝开始
One idea is that hiccups began
在人类出现的几百万年前
many millions of years before the appearance of humans.
肺被认为是为了让早期鱼类
The lung is thought to have evolved as a structure to allow early fish,
指的是那些很多生活在温暖停滞且少氧水域的鱼类
many of which lived in warm, stagnant water with little oxygen
能够获得充足氧气而进化成的一种结构
to take advantage of the abundant oxygen in the air overhead.
当后来这些动物的后代移居陆地
When descendants of these animals later moved onto land,
他们由用腮呼吸变成用肺呼吸
they moved from gill-based ventilation to air-breathing with lungs.
这就与今天蛙类的许多快速的变化是一样的
That’s similar to the much more rapid changes faced by frogs today
就像它们在蝌蚪时期用腮呼吸
as they transition from tadpoles with gills
成年时用肺呼吸一样
to adults with lungs.
这种假设表明打嗝是古时
This hypothesis suggests that the hiccup is a relic of the ancient transition
从水域到陆地演变的结果
from water to land.
一次吸入可以将水遍布腮部
An inhalation that could move water over gills
然后通过快速关闭声门来防止水进入肺部
followed by a rapid closure of the glottis preventing water from entering the lungs.
有证据支持
That’s supported by evidence
证据表明神经的构造涉及到嗝的生成
which suggests that the neural patterning involved in generating a hiccup
大体上与两栖动物的呼吸功能完全相同
is almost identical to that responsible for respiration in amphibians.
另一科学家团队相信这个反射至今保留在我们身体里
Another group of scientists believe that the reflex is retained in us today
是因为它实际上会有重大的好处
because it actually provides an important advantage.
他们指出只有哺乳动物才有真正的打嗝
They point out that true hiccups are found only in mammals
而鸟类 蜥蜴 乌龟却没有保留打嗝
and that they’re not retained in birds, lizards, turtles,
或是任何其他专门呼吸空气的动物
or any other exclusively air-breathing animals.
甚至 打嗝在出生前的小宝宝身上就有发生
Further, hiccups appear in human babies long before birth
并且发生在婴儿身上比发生在大人身上常见的多
and are far more common in infants that adults.
他们对此的解释
Their explanation for this
与哺乳动物独特的看护行为相关
involves the uniquely mammalian activity of nursing.
这种古老的打嗝反射已经被哺乳动物改进过了
The ancient hiccup reflex may have been adapted by mammals
一个饱满的嗝有助于将空气从胃中排出
to help remove air from the stomach as a sort of glorified burp.
隔膜的突然扩张会导致空气从胃中升起
The sudden expansion of the diaphragm would raise air from the stomach,
同时声门的关闭防止牛奶进入肺部
while a closure of the glottis would prevent milk from entering the lungs.
有时 一阵打嗝会持续再持续
Sometimes, a bout of hiccups will go on and on,
我们试了土方子
and we try home remedies:
连续地小口喝掉一杯凉水
sipping continuously from a glass of cold water,
屏住呼吸
holding one’s breath,
吃一满嘴的蜂蜜或花生奶油
a mouthful of honey or peanut butter,
透过一个纸袋呼吸
breathing into a paper bag,
或受到突然的惊吓
or being suddenly frightened.
不幸的是 科学家还没有核实有哪一种方法来治疗
Unfortunately, scientists have yet to verify that any one cure
可以比其他方法更好更持续的起作用
works better or more consistently than others.
我们知道有件事是肯定没有用的
However, we do know one thing that definitely doesn’t work.

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