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为什么我们有盲点 – 译学馆
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为什么我们有盲点

Why Do We Have Blind Spots?

♪ INTRO ♪
[前奏]

We’re going to do a little experiment.
让我们来做个小实验
Make sure you watch this part of the video in full screen.
确保你在观看这段视频时是全屏
Close or cover your left eye; look at the plus sign.
闭上或挡住左眼 看加号符号
Be aware of the circle, but don’t focus on it! Keep looking at the plus.
也注意圆点但不要盯着它 一直看着加号
You may need to move your head back and forth a bit, or move your thing closer to your face.
你也许需要把头部稍微地来回移动 或者让屏幕离脸更近一点
But at some point, the circle is gonna disappear.
在某一时刻圆点就会消失
Now close your right eye and look at the circle.
现在闭上你的右眼盯着圆点
Move your head back and forth until the plus sign disappears.
左右移动头部直到加号消失
You’ve just found your naturally occurring blind spot in each eye.
你就会发现两只眼睛的自然盲点区
And of course, daily practice, we do not notice this.
当然 日常生活中我们并不会注意到这一点
The human eye has what you might call kind of a fundamental flaw.
人的眼睛有我们所说的根本性缺陷
Light-sensing cells in your retina send signals to your brain via nerves.
视网膜中的光感应细胞通过神经发送信号给大脑
And those nerves are in front of the light-sensing cells.
那些神经分布在感光细胞前端
Eventually, those nerves have to pass through the back of your eye to get to your brain.
最终 神经穿过眼球后部连接大脑
And in the part of your retina where they pass through, there aren’t any light-sensing cells.
而神经通过视网膜的区域时 那儿并没有感光细胞
That’s your blind spot.
这就是形成盲点的原因
Now this isn’t normally a problem,
如今盲点并不算个问题
because the blind spots are located at slightly different points in each eye,
因为盲点在每只眼睛分布的区域有些不同
and each of your eyes work together to fill in a complete picture.
而你的两只眼睛会互相协作形成完整的画面
But even with one eye closed, you’re not seeing a big black hole.
即使闭上一只眼睛时 你也不会看到一个大黑洞
Instead, your brain fills in what it figures ought to be there.
相反 你的大脑会构造出可能出现的画面
That’s why, when the circle disappears, you see the color of the background.
这就是为什么当圆点消失时 你会看到背景板的颜色
Your brain is guessing, and it’s guessing wrong.
你的大脑在推测 但所推测的其实是错的
Although, at least one very small study found that
不过 至少通过小实验观察我们可以得出
you might be able to shrink your blind spot with practice.
训练盲点也许可以缩小盲区
Researchers showed ten participants an image that fell within the margins of their blind spots
研究人员向10名参与者展示了一幅在他们盲点边缘的图像
and asked them to describe it.
并要求他们描述它

By the end of the experiment, people got a little better at describing those images.
到实验结束时 人们可以更好地描述图像
The researc hers think it’s because the light-sensing cells right around the edges of the blind spots
研究人员认为这是因为在盲点边缘周围的感光细胞
became more sensitive—better at picking up and passing on light signals.
变得更加敏感地拾取和传递光信号

That’s the kind of skill that’s probably not going to ever make any kind of difference in a life-or-death situation,
这就是那种在生死攸关的情况下可能没什么用的技能
and humans have had blind spots in their eyes for as long as we’ve had eyes.
只要人们有眼睛 人的眼睛里就会有盲点
But it’s a neat way to try and hone your brain, if you’re into that sort of thing.
但如果你喜欢做这件事情的话 这是一个训练大脑的好方法
There is a different kind of creature, though, that just completely avoids this problem.
然而 有种不同的生物完全避免了盲点问题

Cephalopods, like octopuses and squids, have their nerves behind their light-sensing cells,
像章鱼和乌贼这样的头足类动物 它们的神经在感光细胞后面
so there’s no need for them to have a blind spot.
所以他们没有盲点
Why did we not do it that way? Evolution.
为什么我们就不像头足类动物那样没有盲点呢?这是进化的结果
Well I, for one, welcome our tentacled overlords.
我本人欢迎触手霸主
Thank you for asking,
谢谢大家的提问
and thank you especially to all of our patrons on Patreon who keep these answers coming.
尤其感谢Patreon上大家的赞助让我们的频道得以继续
If you’d like to submit questions to be answered,
想提交问题得到回答
or get these Quick Questions a few days before everyone else,
或者比其他人早几天看到快速问题的话
you can go to patreon.com/scishow.
可以登录patreon.com/scishow
And if you just want to keep getting smarter with us,
如果你想和我们一起变得更聪明
you can go to youtube.com/scishow and subscribe!
就登录油管订阅《科学秀》吧
Just do it.
立即行动吧
♪ OUTRO ♪
[结尾曲]

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视频概述

视频讲解盲点的形成原因

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zjTCbL2wbRk

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