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人为什么会长胎记? – 译学馆
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人为什么会长胎记?

Why Do We Have Birthmarks?

Once upon a time, a pregnant woman wished for strawberries,
从前 有个孕妇想吃草莓
when she did not receive them,
在她还没吃到草莓时
her daughter born a few months later,
她的女儿就在几个月后出生了
a strawberry shaped mark on her forehead.
额头上有块草莓状的标记
Or so the story goes in much of ancient history.
此类故事在许多古代历史中都有记载
Yet the true origins of birth mark are a little less weird.
然而胎记的真正起源却没那么荒诞
Hey Guys, Julia here for DNews
大家好 我是DNews的Julia
Birthmarks can often be a source of embarrassment for some.
胎记经常会成为有些人尴尬的原因
A mistake of DNA can lead to an deposit
一个基因的错误就会导致
of melanin or a tangle of veins.
一堆黑色素沉积或一团混乱的静脉血管
But surprisingly, not a lot is known about them.
但令人惊讶的是 我们对胎记的了解还不是很多
Scientists split birthmarks into two main categories, vascular and pigmented.
科学家把胎记分成两种主要类型 血管型和色素型
Caused by increase in melanin in one spot, pigmented birthmarks are mostly harmless. Moles,
由一个点上的黑色素增长引起的色素型胎记大多是无害的
Café au lait spot,
痣 咖啡牛奶斑
and mongolian spots are the big three kinds.
和蒙古斑是三大类
Pigmented Nevi, or more commonly known as moles,
色素痣 通常也叫作痣
are dark skin cells that grow in clusters.
就是成群生长的黑皮肤细胞
Cafe au lait, are a little more spread
咖啡牛奶斑 扩散得更大
out and a lighter brown or tan.
程亮棕色或棕褐色
Mongolian spots, are bluish purplish color
蒙古斑 程淡蓝略紫色
and appear when melanocytes get trapped in
在色素细胞渗入皮肤更深层处时
a deeper layer of skin.
显现出来
And are typically found in people of East Asian descent.
并且通常出现在东方血统的人们身上
They go away as kids get older and are almost always gone by puberty.
而且几乎都是在孩子们长到青春期之前全部消失
More is known about vascular birthmarks however,
然而 对血管型胎记的了解更多
The most common are stork bites,
最常见的是毛细血管扩张斑
pink or tan patches that appear on babies’neck.
在婴儿脖子上的粉色或棕褐色斑块
It’s estimated that as many as half of all newborns get one.
大概有一半的新生婴儿都会有一个
Similar to spider veins,
与蜘蛛斑很相似
the stretching of some capillaries causes the patches to appear,
一些毛细血管的延伸导致了斑块的显现
and they too usually go away after 18 months or so.
这些也经常会在大约18个月之后消失
Another type of common birthmark are little strawberry like marks called infantile hemangiomas.
另一种常见的胎记是被称为婴幼儿血管瘤的类似草莓状的胎记
These are basically benign tumors in the cells that line blood vessels.
其基本上是组成血管的细胞里的良性肿瘤
One study published in Journal of Clinical Investigation found that these marks originate
在《临床调查杂志》上发表的一项研究发现 这些胎记起源于
in one type of cell which express a protein, CD133.
一种分泌出CD133蛋白质的细胞
From these cells blood vessels form,
血管就是由这些细胞形成的
but then they disappear leaving behind fat cells which
然而这些细胞会消失
make the marks stick out.
并留下那些凸显胎记的脂肪细胞
Another study published in Pediatric Dermatology
另一项在《小儿皮肤科》发表的研究
found a connection between oxygen depletion in the placenta
发现胎盘中的氧气耗尽
and the development of these type of birthmarks.
和这些胎记种类发展的联系
Yet some research from The Medical College
然而 美国威斯康星医学院
of Wisconsin and Children’s Research Institute
和儿童研究机构的一些研究指出
suggests that low birth weight is
出生的体重轻是
the single greatest factor in developing an infantile hemangioma.
导致婴幼儿血管瘤的最主要因素
Most of them disappear after a few months,
其中大部分会在几个月之后消失
but up to 10 % of them can cause some problems,
但其中高达10%的胎记会带来一些问题
like getting so big it impacts vision or breathing.
严重的还会影响视力和呼吸
Some birthmarks indicate a serious underlying issue.
有些胎记则预示着一些潜在的隐患
Port-wine birthmarks are pretty common,
鲜红胎记更是相当普遍
about one million people in the United State have
在美国 大约有100万人
the reddish elevated spots.
都有淡红色的浮肿斑
Like stork bits and hemangiomas,
就像毛细血管扩张斑和肝血管瘤
they form when capillaries don’t grow correctly, yet
它们会在毛细血管生长不正常时形成
these can grow and thicken over time.
会随着时间的推移生长 变厚
They can sometimes be a hallmark of Sturge-Weber syndrome,
它们有时也会是斯特奇-韦伯综合征的象征性标志
in which patients have abnormal
这些患者在皮肤 大脑和眼睛等部位
blood vessels in the skin, brain and eyes,
都有着异常的血管分布
which cause the symptoms of the disorder.
从而导致身心机能紊乱的一些症状
One study published in the New England Journal
《新英格兰医学杂志》上发表的一篇研究发现
of Medicine found a single genetic mutation
在GNAQ基因上的单个基因突变
on the gene GNAQ is associated with the disorder.
跟身体机能紊乱有关系
From this run down,
综上所述
it’s clear more research is need, get on it science!
很明显 还需要更多的研究 学习科学吧
Alright guys, do you have a weird birthmark?
好了各位 你们有奇怪的胎记吗?
Let us know in the comments below.
请在下面评论区告诉我们
While you’re at it don’t forget to hit those like and subscribe buttons
同时 也别忘了点“赞”并“订阅”
and keep coming back here for new episodes every day of the week.
也一定要每天收看新的主题讨论哦

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视频概述

本视频介绍了科学家们对胎记的各种了解,包括胎记形成的原因、分布人群和年龄以及其危害程度等。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Lily

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ggNSRyT3DNE

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