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紧张征服之术 大揭秘 – 译学馆
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紧张征服之术 大揭秘

Why Do We Get Nervous?

不论是在等待考试时
Whether you’re waiting for an exam,
还是在重要演讲之前
about to start an important presentation
又或在比赛起跑线上
or at the start of a race,
我们都曾感到过紧张
we’ve all experienced nervousness.
不过 我们为什么会感到紧张呢
But why do we get nervous,
通过观察职业运动员 可以帮助我们了解 如何能有效地 成功应对紧张么
and could looking at professional athletes help us understand how to effectively cope with it?
身处高压环境下
In stressful situations,
你的大脑会从脑垂体持续发出信号传递到肾脏
your brain sends a signal from the pituitary gland all the way to the kidneys
肾脏的肾上腺处 因此会分泌 “肾上腺素”
where your adrenal gland resides. And this is where adrenaline is released.
(肾上腺素) 你曾经感受过
You’ve felt it before
会让你 心跳加快 瞳孔扩大 肌肉血流加速
— the rapid heart rate, dilating pupils and increased circulation in your muscles.
这三个反应合起来 即所谓的“战斗或逃跑反应”
It’s all part of the “fight or flight” response
这种反应在人类进化过程中形成 对人类物种的延续 起到了促进作用
which developed in our evolutionary history to help us survive.
不过 这种反应 不是“非全即无”的
But this response isn’t all or nothing
而是 根据 察觉到的威胁 或者 结果的重要性 在反应的程度上 轻重会有所不同
— there are degrees of reaction, according to the perceived threat or importance you attach to the outcome.
因此 某些事情 比如面试
So something like an interview,
纵然 只是带来了些挑战
which presents a challenge,
不过 其激发的生物反应 却与生命受到威胁的时候 完全相同
stimulates the same biological reaction that a threat to your life does
只是程度上 轻了不少
— just to a smaller degree.
感觉你的胃中 有紧张的蝴蝶 飞舞扑腾?
Feel those nervous butterflies in your stomach?
这是因为
This is because
肾上腺素 能在人们紧张时 促使能量和血液的供给 发生改变
the adrenaline helps redirecting blood and energy
一方面流入 你身体最重要的部分 比如心脏 肌肉
to the most important parts of your body during stress, like the heart and muscles,
一方面流出 你的消化系统 造成 胃周围的血管 缩小
and away from your digestive system causing the blood vessels to close around your stomach
从而导致了 那种刺疼感
leading to that tingling sensation.
那么 面对压力和紧张 职业运动员 是如何应对的呢?
So, how do professional athletes handle the stress and nerves?
流行体育运动中 “心理意象”概念的应用 颇为广泛
The concept of ‘mental imagery’ is a widely used method in popular sport.
运动员们 在比赛或训练前 通过“特定感知意象” 仅仅想象自己 对技能或技巧 正在进行练习 (就能达到效果)
With ‘Cognitive Specific’ imagery, an athlete simply imagines themselves practicing a technique or skill before competing or training.
这样的方式 尽管听起来 很荒唐
And while it may sound crazy,
但是 对大脑相关神经元 的确可以形成刺激
this actually stimulates the relevant neurons in the brain,
而且 已被证实 对特定技巧 有提升的作用
and has been shown to enhance the specific skill.
另一方面 运动员 通过“特定动机意象” 作为激励方式 可以让自己 将战胜对手 赢得比赛 这种感觉 回想起来
‘Motivational Specific’ imagery on the other hand encourages athletes to recall the feeling of winning an event or beating a competitor as a motivational tool.
最后
Finally,
运动员 常用“动机整体控制” 来让自己更加自信
“MotivationalGeneral-Mastery” is commonly used by athletes to feel more confident.
再说一次
Again,
运动员 凭借在比赛之前 想象自己既专注又强大 从而形成积极的思维
by simply imagining themselves as focused, tough and having positive thoughts prior to competition, athletes are
继而能够 提升表现 克服紧张
able to improve performance and overcome nerves.
自信 对运动员成功与否 向来特别有影响
Confidence, in particular, is a consistent factor that distinguishes successful athletes from others,
也让职业教练 既重视又关注
and a major focus for professional coaches.
那么 下次你感觉 紧张开始发作
So, next time you feel those nerves kick in,
如“奥林匹克”选手般 试着做好准备吧
try preparing like an Olympian would!
你在等待什么?
What are you waiting for?
各就各位 预备 跑!
On your mark, get set, GO!
请记住:
Don’t forget:
“奥林匹克运动会”期间 我们的视频 会每天更新
we have a new video out every day during the Olympics.
迫不及待了吗?
Can’t wait?
我们“加拿大广播公司”的同伴 让人十分惊喜 目前已上传了五个视频 以便你们可以尽情观看
Our amazing partners at the CBC already have five of the videos up now for you to binge on.
请前往“cbc.ca/olympics/ScienceSays”网址 率先观看视频
Just head to cbc.ca/olympics/ScienceSays to watch them before anyone else.
根据说明 进行链接
Link in the description.
不过 我们也想知道 对这个特别的系列节目 你们有什么疑问
But we also want to know your questions for this special series.
请用#号标注上“ScienceSays”
Use the hashtag ScienceSays
以便让我们知道 你们对“奥林匹克” 有哪些问题 迫切想要了解
and let us know your burning Olympic questions.
观看更棒的科学视频 请订阅我们
And subscribe for more awesome science videos!

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