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青春期对我们做了什么? – 译学馆
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青春期对我们做了什么?

Why Do We Even Have Puberty?

大家好 感谢收看今天的节目
Hey everyone, thanks for tuning into Dnews Plus again today,
我是特雷森 这是青春期三部曲的第二部
I’m Tracen, this is episode two of three on puberty.
我们在节目中讨论人类为何会有青春期
We are talking about how humans start puberty and
以及其间会发生什么
then what happens.
今天要说的是后者 最后一集我们将会讨论
Today is the what happens. And eventually we are gonna talk about
我们是否可以逆转青春期 返老还童
if we can reverse puberty and go backward,
节目将会异彩纷呈
it’s gonna be really cool.
请持续关注频道 订阅精彩内容
Make sure you stick around, subscribe all that great stuff.
首先 究竟什么是青春期?
But first, what is puberty exactly?
我们都知道
Like, we know of it
它是我们青少年
as the thing that we went through when we were teenagers
必经的时期
if you past that stage.
如果你还处在青春期
If you’re not there yet,
那就好好享受它吧
stick with it, it’s gonna be awesome.
一开始会很糟糕 但后来就会变好
It’s gonna be terrible, but then it’s gonna be awesome.
提及青春期的时候
Several factors come into play,
有几个影响因素
when we’re talking about puberty and when it takes place.
有遗传因素 环境因素
There’s the genetics of it, there’s environmental factors.
大多数人的青春期始于11到16岁之间
For most people, it begins between the ages of 11 and 16,
但目前有越来越提前的趋势
but there is a trend right now of it happening much earlier.
青春期开始的时候通常会有蛛丝马迹
There are usually telltale signs of when it started.
我不知道你们的父母
Now I don’t know if your parents,
祖父母 老师 或者其他什么人
or your grandparents or your teachers or somebody,
有没跟你你讨论青春期的话题
has had a conversation about puberty with you.
但对我来说
But for me, it was…
奇怪的地方会长体毛 开始喜欢女生
you get hair in funny places and start liking girls.
美国中西部的小镇里都是这么说的
That was what they told me in my Midwest small town.
但是 体毛和奇怪的地方并不是青春期的开始
But, hair and funny places is actually not the beginning of puberty,
青春期在此之前
that comes out later.
阴毛不代表青春期
Pubic hair does not puberty mean.
青春期始于大脑
It all starts up in the brain,
远在阴毛生长之前
before pubic hair has even started.
前后我们会更深入讨论其中的化学因素
We’re going into more depth on the chemistry of it in a minute,
但青春期的第一个迹象
but the first signs of puberty,
从医学上说 对于女孩
medically speaking, for girls,
是乳房的发育 乳房组织的发育
are breast development, breast tissue development,
对于男孩来说 睾丸的发育
and for boys, are larger testicles and a scrotum
阴囊变薄变红
that begins to thin and redden.
如果你现在觉得有点尴尬了
Now if you’re feeling awkward about all this stuff,
抱歉 但我们这是个
I’m sorry but we have a…, you know,
医学节目 是科学节目
medical show here, a little science things.
有体征以后 事情就乱套了
So after that, all hell breaks loose.
对于女性来说 她们会开始
For females, typically they start at first,
开始长出阴毛 还在胳膊和腿上长体毛
they’ll get pubic hair, they have hair on their arms and legs.
乳房开始发育
The breasts start to grow,
乳头变大 月经开始初潮
nipples start to enlarge, they start their period.
通常月经比乳房发育来得更晚
It usually happens a little later than breast development.
阴毛变粗变卷
Pubic hair becomes coarser and curlier,
肾上腺开始在体内分泌雄性荷尔蒙
the adrenal glands make male sex hormones
对 在女性体内分泌 她们也有睾丸酮素
inside of the body, yes in women, they also have testosterone,
卵巢开始分泌雌性激素
the ovaries begin to produce estrogen,
咽喉产生结构变化 引起变声
the larynx has structural changes that changes the voice,
腋毛开始生长 上嘴唇也会有汗毛
the armpit hair starts to show up, hair on the upper lip,
她们排汗增多 长痤疮 白头 黑头
they start to sweat more, you get acne, whiteheads, blackheads,
以及脓包
pus-filled spots called pustules.
另外还会长高 增重 拥有身材曲线
Plus you grow taller, you gain weight, you get more curvy,
等等这些
all sorts of stuff.
对于男性 有很多相同的变化
For men, for males, very similar changes in some ways,
体毛浓密 排汗增多 胸部暂时会发育
you get hairier sweaty, or you even get breasts swelling temporarily,
当然还会有痤疮和脓包
acne, of course, pustules growth,
会长高 但他们也会经历梦遗
grow spurts. But they also experience wet dreams
作为生殖器官开始觉醒的标志
as the sex organs start kind of working it out,
喉结发育 导致变声
the enlargement of the larynx changes the voice,
声带变宽 会破音
vocal chords lengthen, the voice breaks,
然后嗓音会一直低沉下去
and then gets permanently deeper,
生活中声音可能会来回变化
you kind of fly back and forth over that throughout your life.
睾丸垂下 阴茎随精囊
Testicles drop and the penis actually gets a little larger along with the seminal vesicles,
前列腺和尿道腺一同发育生长
the prostate and the bulbourethral glands.
初次射精以后
After the initial ejaculation,
男性就有生育能力了 就是这样
guys are pretty much fertile, that’s that.
这一过程相当重要
This process is pretty important,
目的就是让一个未发育的有性人类
because the whole point is again, turning an undeveloped sexually anyway,
成为发育完全的有性人类
human, into a developed sexual human,
你有能力去繁育后代了
you’re getting ready to breed.
我们之后会再说回来
We’re gonna come back to that,
但这基本就是青春期的作用
but that’s pretty much what puberty is for.
重点是 在青春期之前
The point is, before puberty,
即使你可以 两性交媾也起不到什么作用
sex doesn’t do anything even if you could have it.
青春期之后 交媾导致怀孕
After puberty, sex causes pregnancy
你也就可以繁衍后代了
so that you can propagate the species.
这一有趣的过程会持续多久呢?
How long this lovely process will take?
当然 因人而异了 对女性来说
Of course, varies. In females,
从青春期初现端倪
from the first indication of puberty,
即乳房组织发育 到性成熟
that breast tissue development, to complete maturity,
时间从18个月到6年不等
can take anywhere from eighteen months to six years.
对男性来说 时间大致相同
In males, it’s very similar sometime between
18个月到6年
18 months to six years. But,
但男性生殖器则需要
the male genitalia has been known to take
2到5年完全发育
between two and five years to fully develop.
所以如果男性正在看这个节目
So if you are a male out there
你正在经历青春期
and you are currently going through puberty,
别担心 你的身体还在发育
don’t worry, it’s still going, still changes.
但如我之前所说 青春期并不始于
But as I said before, puberty actually doesn’t start out here,
我们可见的体征
with our visible distinctions,
它从大脑开始
it starts in the brain.
对于男孩和女孩来说
The trigger for puberty to begin
触发青春期的都是一种激素的分泌
in both boys and girls is the production of a hormone,
即促性腺激素
gonadotropin-releasing hormone, GnRH.
它由下丘脑分泌
It comes out of the hypothalamus,
下丘脑让脑下垂体飞速运转
and that little guy sends the pituitary gland into overdrive,
脑下垂体——
PITUITARYYY——
脑下垂体是青春期的明星
Pituitary gland is like the star of puberty,
如果青春期是演唱会
if like, puberty were a concert,
脑下垂体就是贾斯汀•比伯
pituitary gland is Justin Bieber,
人们对脑下垂体欲求不满
people can’t get enough of puberty gland.
脑下垂体分泌激素
That little gland is releasing hormones
到全身各处
all over the place.
有促滤泡激素
We got the follicle stimulating hormone,
我想你能猜出来它是做什么的
I think you can probably guess what that does,
还有促黄体激素等
the luteinizing hormone.
这些激素直达睾丸和卵巢
Those hormones head to the testicles and the ovaries and they essentially
并进行一系列的准备工作
start setting things up, getting things ready.
性成熟已经开始了
Sexual maturity has begun.
但重申一遍 还得18个月到6年
I mean not exactly, again 18 months to 6 years later,
才能完成
it’s gonna be done,
这是个长期过程
but it’s a long process.
科学家不知道究竟因何或什么
Scientists don’t really know why or what
触发了下丘脑突然开始分泌促性腺激素
triggers the hypothalamus to suddenly start releasing this GnRH,
这一过程有些疯狂
which is actually kind of crazy.
发育成熟的卵巢和睾丸也同样会分泌
The maturing ovaries and testes will then also secrete
性腺类固醇和雌激素睾酮
gonadal steroids and estrogen testosterone.
肯定有某种计时器
There must be some kind of countdown
当人们到一定岁数的时候
that trips is what people figure
这一过程就启动了
once you reach a certain age.
1975年 研究生医学杂志的一篇研究发现
A study in the Postgraduate Medical Journal from 1975 found
随着年龄的增长 性激素稳定
that with age, the ganadostat
对性甾体的抑制作用
becomes progressively less sensitive
越来越不敏感
to the suppressive effects of sex steroids,
让我来翻译一下
so let me translate for you.
科学家本来设想有某种激素
Essentially, they thought that there was some hormone
会限制或者阻止
that was restricting or holding back
脑下垂体分泌性激素
the pituitary gland, you know,
这样一种在青春期的舞台上
this hormone was like the opening act
于序幕登场的激素
in the concert of puberty that we were just talking about.
阻止着演员上台表演
It was keeping the Biebs off stage,
但与此同时 演员要出去
but at some point, Biebs got to get out
要在台上表演
he’s got to get on that stage,
观众不想再看序幕了
the crowd is sick at the opening act,
科学家们是这么认为的
and that’s how they think.
随着时间的推移 你会对那种
You may have desensitized over time
抑制性的化学物质麻木
to that blocking chemical
也就让你的身体开始成熟
that allows your body to start becoming mature.
还有个理论是说下丘脑
There’s also another theory that the hypothalamus,
即大脑本身 一部分大脑尚未成熟
the brain itself, parts of the brain weren’t mature enough yet,
当这一部分达到一定成熟度的时候
and once they get to a certain maturity level,
就会开始分泌激素
they’ll start releasing hormones
开始青春期
that kick off the process.
所以性腺类固醇的水平可能有临界点
So, maybe there’s a tipping point of gonadal steroid levels.
有各种各样的猜测 但是
There are all these different guesses but,
但人们并不能把什么东西戳进大脑
it’s not like you can stick something into the brain and,
然后看看化学物质如何作用于
see what’s going on with the chemicals
青春期前后的孩子们的 对吧?
in a prepubescent and post-pubescent kid, right?
太缺德了 所以这是人们的最佳猜测
Not really ethical. So this is our best guess.
最后 所有这些激素开始起作用
In the end, all of these hormones start turning the keys,
它们遍布全身 开始工作
all over our bodies and starting construction projects
包括所有其他事情
including all sorts of other stuff,
这也解释了为何我们不仅有生理变化
which is why these changes don’t just affect us physically,
还有行为变化
they also affect our behavior.
科学家猜测这些性腺类固醇
It’s hypothesized that these gonadal steroids
激活了休眠的神经回路
activate dormant neural circuits
以致让我们从社会层面和生殖层面
that cause us to act more like an adult in a few different ways,
表现得更像成年人
both socially and reproductively.
动物研究指出 性类固醇激素
Animal studies show that sex steroid hormones
对行为有三种影响
have three effects on behavior.
首先 我们开始把事情
First, we start thinking about things
往繁殖方面想
from a reproductive standpoint a lot more.
你懂的 你开始注意到
You know, you start noticing
引起你性趣的对象
the member of the sex that you’re attracted to,
这主要发生在下丘脑
and this occurs mainly in the hypothalamus.
其次 我们的感知和联合区域
Second, our sensory and association regions
开始重组
start to get reorganized,
其实就是大脑开始改变它的结构
literally the brain starts to change its structure,
比如视皮质 杏仁核
things like the visual cortex and the amygdala,
还有海马区 都开始不同的动作
the hippocampus they start doing different things and,
我们就在看到别人或闻到别人的味道时
so we start seeing and smelling people
把他们当成潜在的性对象 这是从未有过的独特角度
as potential sexual partners in a different way than we did before.
最后 大脑的奖励区重新连线
And third, the reward areas of the brain get rewired.
这主要发生在伏隔核
This happens mostly in the nucleus accumbens
以及通往前额皮质的多巴胺通路上
and the dopaminergic pathways to the prefrontal cortex.
大脑的这部分区域 让你想跟帅哥或者美女亲热
Basically areas of the brain that make you want to get down with the hotties,
不管他们碰巧是谁
whoever those hotties happen to be,
仔细想想 脑部的化学机制不太爱按常理出牌
brain chemistry is pretty crazy actually, if you think about it.
但重申一次 这些结论来源于动物研究
But again, the results of this are mostly from animal studies,
很多实验对象都在实验后经过了尸检验视
a lot of it was done postmortem and dissections after the fact,
科学家将大脑分离出来然后惊叹道
they started taking these brains apart and saying
哇 这个大脑跟那个不一样
Woo! This brain looks different than that brain,
有何不同?啊 这里和这里的化学物质
What’s different? Ahh, these chemicals there and there,
这些化学物质引起了这种变化
these chemicals there and this starts to make these changes.
很明显 我们还需要更多研究
So more research is obviously needed
或许有一天我们就能够
and maybe someday we’ll be able to,
你懂的 在身体里植入什么东西
you know, put something in your body
借此探知体内发生了什么 但目前来说
that can tell us what’s going on, but as of now,
重申一次 是猜想 但有一点说得通
again, a lot of this is guesswork, but it makes sense
即我们从繁殖的角度开始喜欢上一个人
that we would first start liking people from a reproductive standpoint.
接着 开始与之交往
Second, start associating those people
然后闻到看到某些东西
and smells and sights with certain things,
如果性接触成功 我们就得到了奖励
and then get rewards when we are successful in sexual,
至少是对于性的兴趣 谈生育还太早
at least interest, not so much reproductive stuff early on,
因为生活中有些人在提及这一话题会很尴尬
because some of us are really awkward for most of our lives.
总之继续说 所以我们可以 并且已经研究了青春期的发展过程
Anyway moving on. So we can and have studied this development,
也有很多科学家进行了有趣的
and there’s been some really interesting studies in grey matter,
关于青春期脑部的灰质研究
in the brains of adolescence,
皮层灰质的某些层面
Several aspects of cortical gray matter
会在青春期发生变化
changed during development.
比如密度 厚度 以及体积
Things like density, thickness and volume.
灰质的发展阶段呈现有趣的倒U型
Gray matter actually develops in this interesting inverted u-shape,
并于青春期达到峰值
and it reaches its peak in adolescence.
有些人相信 青春期荷尔蒙
Some believe that there’s a definite connection to puberty hormones,
与灰质的发展密切相关
and this gray matter development.
更意想不到的是 青春期时的核磁共振成像
And what’s even crazier is that MRI scans during adolescence
表明脑部的杏仁核
show that the amygdala
杏仁核相当于脑部的情绪中枢
which is like an emotional center of our brain,
男性杏仁核体积会增大
the volume grew for males,
女性却不会
but it didn’t grow for females.
超有趣 对吧?
That’s super interesting, right?
女性海马区的体积会增大 而男性却不会
The hippocampus also increased in volume for females, but not males.
海马区相当于记忆和社交中心
The hippocampus is like a memory and association center.
真的很有意思
It’s really interesting.
据约翰•霍普金斯大学布隆博格公共卫生学院的一名助教
According to an assistant professor at John Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health,
萨拉•约翰逊称 由于脑内物质的增加
named Sarah Johnson, because of the increase in the brain matter,
青少年也就具有了成年人的信息处理和决策能力
teens have the processing power and decision-making skills of an adult.
他们会花足够的时间处理其处境和信息
Given enough time, to process the situation and information.
所以没错 青少年本质就是“年轻的成年人”
So yes, teenagers are essentially young adults,
但青少年需要更长的时间
but it takes them longer,
得出与已经发育完全的成年人
to get to the same conclusion that an adult who is developed
相同的结论
would have gotten to.
然而 青少年普遍受情绪控制
Usually though, teens are overly influenced by their emotions,
因为尽管他们的信息处理能力增强了
because though their processing power is getting stronger,
他们的情绪能力也增强了
their emotional power is also getting stronger.
这就与脑部的边缘系统有关系了
And that brings us to the limbic system,
就是我此前提到的杏仁核区域
the amygdala which I just mentioned,
它与很多情绪直接相关
directly linked to a lot of things,
愤怒 恐惧 侵略性 激动 性吸引
rage, fear, aggression, excitement, sexual attraction,
这也解释了在人生中的这一阶段
and it makes sense that during this part of our lives,
青春期阶段
puberty and adolescence and such,
青少年五分钟就能把这些情绪体验个遍
teens experience all of those things, probably in about five minutes.
可青春期究竟何时才真正结束呢?
But when does puberty really end, right?
我知道我说了18个月到6年
I know I said eighteen months to six years,
但据英国国家卫生署称
but according to the National Health Service in the UK,
大部分男孩会在18岁时完全成年
most boys will have reached a full adult age by the age of eighteen.
女孩也同样在18岁左右成年
Girls, also, about the age of eighteen.
所以可能这说明
So maybe there’s something to that,
一旦你18岁了 就是成年人了
once you’re 18, you’re an adult.
然而还有其他研究显示 大脑在20岁之前
Although other studies have shown the brain doesn’t fully develop
不会停止发育
until you’re in your 20s.
所以真的因人而异
So it really depends.
所以你是生理上的成年人?
Are you going… you’re physically an adult?
还是心智上的成年人?
Or mentally an adult?
这也是我该向你提出的问题
So I guess that’s a question I should pose to you,
请在评论区回复你的看法
so tell us down in the comments, what do you think?
该在大脑发育完成前仍把人们当成孩子?
Should we let people continue to be considered kids until their brains are developed?
还是说在18岁青春期结束时
Or is 18, when your puberty is over,
他们就已经是个成年人了?
are you now an adult?
请评论留下你的想法
Let us know your thoughts in the comments,
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make sure you subscribe so you get more episodes of dnews plus.
在了解青春期的发展过程以后
And now tomorrow, we’re going to figure out
明天的节目中我们要讨论
after we learned all about this process,
这一过程是否可逆
if we can reverse it.
能逆青春期吗?可以返老还童吗?明天就有答案
Can we go back? Can we regress? Find out tomorrow.
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感谢你的收看
Thanks so much for watching everyone,
下期再见
we’ll see you next time.

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视频概述

青春期是人生中的必经过程,但少有人真正理解这一变化所代表的真正含义。青春期其实并不始于体征的变化,它始于我们的大脑。这是怎么回事?来视频中寻找答案吧!

听录译者

面白坊主

翻译译者

Hermes赫斯

审核员

YX

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1xu2iXO4Q0U

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