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为什么我们爱看别人出糗? – 译学馆
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为什么我们爱看别人出糗?

Why Do We Enjoy Seeing Other People Fail?

[有趣的音乐]
[playful music]
无论是看出糗视频哈哈大笑
Whether it’s laughing at fail videos
还是在对手球队大赛败北时
or relishing those times
感到欣喜
when a rival sports team lost the big game,
我们都乐于看到别人倒霉
we all enjoy watching others’ misfortunes.
其实这有一个词
There’s actually a word for this,
叫做 幸灾乐祸
it’s called schadenfreude,
字面意思是指从他人的苦难中取乐
literally it means enjoyment obtained from troubles of others.
听起来是个怪癖 而且确实如此
It sounds twisted, and it is.
甚至比你想象的更怪异
It’s even more twisted than you might think.
科技内核
幸灾乐祸的情绪 由来已久
Shadenfreude is nothing new.
也许它与生俱来
Chances are, it’s been hardwired
影响人类思维方式 已经几百万年
into our way of thinking for millions of years.
我认为 最有力的一个观点
One of the strongest arguments, to my mind,
是人的大脑演变了数百万年
is that our brains evolved over millions of years
这个过程中 常常是一小群人
in a situation where you had small groups of humans
要与另一群人进行生存斗争
scrabbling out an existence against other small groups of humans
环境形势相对恶劣
in a relatively harsh environment.
为求生存
In order to survive that,
群体需要非常紧密团结
you’d need your group to be really tight-knit,
这就促进了比如同理心
and this would both select for something like empathy,
即对其他成员遭受苦难的同情
feeling for the suffering of other group members,
和对外人的极端好斗情绪
and also extreme aggression towards others,
比如幸灾乐祸
something like shadenfreude.
幸灾乐祸和同理心
Shadenfreude and empathy
是同一件事的两个方面
are two sides of the same coin.
都是看到他人受挫后 我们相应的感受
They’re both a response we feel to seeing someone else’s trials and misfortunes.
然而 两者有个最大的不同
However, there’s one big difference between the two.
幸灾乐祸并非父母传授
Shadenfreude isn’t something parents teach their children,
目前研究者们知道 2岁的孩子就会幸灾乐祸
yet researchers know that babies as young as two can experience it.
即使很小的竞争 也能引发这种反应
All it takes is a little competition to trigger the reaction.
一个研究中 2岁孩子看母亲疼爱着另一婴儿
For one study, two-year olds watched as their mothers doted on other infants.
接着 让母亲将水洒在婴儿身上
Later, the mothers were toldto spill water on the infants.
她这么做时 旁观的2岁孩子非常兴奋
When they did, the onlookingtwo-year olds got so excited
有的甚至高兴得跳了起来
that some of them literally bounced with joy.
这很有趣 而且不难看出
It’s funny, but it’s not hard to see
这种幼稚的竞争 会怎样演变成
how this childish rivalry could develop into
成人的勾心斗角
something more sinister in adults.
这正是Emile Bruneau所研究的
And that’s exactly what Emile Bruneau studies.
他游览世界各地 调查研究各种冲突
He’s traveled to many parts of the world to investigate conflicts,
包括亚利桑那边境的美国人和加拿大人
including Americans and Mexicans on the Arizona border,
以色列的以色列人和巴基斯坦人
Israelis and Palestinians in Israel,
美国的民主党人和共和党人
and Democrats and Republicans in the U.S.
冲突的地点和内容无关紧要
It doesn’t matter where the conflict is or what it’s about,
他发现 一切冲突都根源于幸灾乐祸
he’s found that the root of all of it is shadenfreude.
群体内外的自己人和外人
We are extraordinarily motivated by
都格外能调动我们的积极性
who belongs to our group and who belongs to the other group.
我们非常倾向于
We have a strong tendency to think,
以“我们和他们”的角度来思考
not just in terms of me and you,
而不是从“我和你”的角度
but in terms of us and them.
对于看作“他们”的那些人
And people who identify as them,
我会幸灾乐祸更多一点 对于“我们”则不然
I’ll feel more shadenfreude towards them than towards us.
当然 这是行为的一种动机
And certainly, that is the type of thingthat drives behavior.
如果你对某人有同理心
If you feel empathy for somebody else,
他们焦虑时 你会因而伸出援手
you’re motivated to help them if they’re in distress.
与之类似 若你感到幸灾乐祸
Similarly, if you feel shadenfreude,
你就有伤害别人的动机
you’re motivated to harm the other person.
神经科学家认为 他们已经找到
Neuroscientists think they’ve pinpointed
操纵这些行为的大脑区域
the area of the brain behind all this.
一次研究中
For one study,
红袜队和洋基队球迷观看模拟的比赛
Red Sox and Yankees fans watched simulated plays
同时 功能性磁共振成像会检测其大脑活动
while a fMRI measured their brain activity.
当球迷看到对手球队败北时
When a fan saw the rival team fail,
大脑的一块特殊区域 即腹侧纹状体 兴奋了起来
a special area of the brain called the ventral striatum lit up.
它有助于处理奖励和喜悦情绪
It helps process reward and pleasure,
也表明该球迷正在幸灾乐祸
suggesting that the fans wereexperiencing shadenfreude.
腹侧纹状体也与决策有关
The ventral striatum is alsoinvolved with decision making.
有趣的是 报道也宣称该区域更活跃的球迷
Interestingly, fans who showed more activity there also reported that
可能会伤害对手球队的球迷
they were likely to harm a fan of the rival team.
这就能解释 为什么幸灾乐祸
This could explain why shadenfreude
似乎促进了全球的暴力和冲突
seems to be driving human conflicts and violence worldwide.
但现在不正是我们需要最终摆脱
But isn’t it time we finally shake off
这一古老思维方式的时候吗?
this archaic way of thinking?
当今世界 非常不同于
The modern world is very different than
我们的大脑最初演变时的世界
the world that our brains primarily evolved in.
现在
And then right now,
我们还在用石器时代的心理 尝试解决当今问题
we’re trying to solve these modern day problems with Stone Age psychology.
在全球化和文化多样化的环境下
In an environment that is global and multicultural,
冲突更少
where you have much less conflict,
通力协作 比斗争冲突更有前途
where cooperation and collaboration can get you much further than conflict,
的确 我觉得斗争思维不如过去有用了
then yes, I feel like it is not as productive.
相反 Bruno正寻找办法
Instead, Bruno is exploring
利用同理心来解决冲突
how to use empathy to resolve conflict
并促成决议
and move towards resolutions.
最近 我很感兴趣的是
Most recently, what I’ve been really interested in is,
我们怎样调解冲突?
how do we intervene?
怎样引起另一个群体的同理心?
And how do we motivate empathytowards the other group?
有趣的是 我发现
Interestingly enough, what I’ve found is that
尽力改变人们对另一方认知看法的调解
interventions that are directed more at trying to challenge their cognitive perceptions of the other side
更能引起他们的共鸣
are the types of things that open up their empathy.
所以似乎 使人敞开心胸的最佳办法
So it’s almost like the best approach
是开拓他们的思维
to opening people’s hearts is first by opening their minds.
这并不是说
This doesn’t necessarily mean that
你不能看Youtube上的出糗视频取乐
you can’t laugh at fail videos on Youtube.
但也许 如果我们尝试
But perhaps if we tried to have a
对另一个群体多一点同理心
little bit more empathy for other groups,
世界可能会因而更加美好
maybe we could make the world a better place.
[柔和的钢琴旋律]
[soft piano music]

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视频概述

数百万年的演化过程中,群体与群体相互竞争,为求生存,团体必须非常紧密团结,这就促进了人们对自己人的同理心和对外人的幸灾乐祸情绪。而现在,这种斗争思维已经不再有用了。对他人多一点同理心,世界也许会更加美好。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JA6j22mADAQ

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