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为什么会做梦 – 译学馆
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为什么会做梦

Why do we dream? - Amy Adkins

公元前三千年
In the third millenium BCE,
美索不达米亚地区的国王们用蜡片记下并解读了他们的梦
Mesopotamian kings recorded and interpreted their dreams on wax tablets.
一千年后 古埃及人写了一本关于梦的书
A thousand years later, Ancient Egyptians wrote a dream book
列出了超过一百个常见的梦及其含义
listing over a hundred common dreamsand their meanings.
从那以后
And in the years since,
我们就没停止探索我们为什么会做梦
we haven’t paused in our quest to understand why we dream. So,
经过大量科学研究
after a great dealof scientific research,
科技进步以及不懈努力
technological advancement, and persistence,
我们仍然没有任何明确的答案
we still don’t have any definite answers,
但我们得到了一些有趣的理论
but we have some interesting theories.
做梦是为了实现我们的愿望
We dream to fulfill our wishes.
20世纪初
In the early 1900s,
西格蒙德•弗洛伊德提出
Sigmund Freud proposed that while all
尽管我们所有的梦 包括噩梦
of our dreams, including our nightmares,
都是我们日常有意识的生活中的影像的集合
are a collection of imagesfrom our daily conscious lives,
但它们也有象征意义
they also have symbolic meanings,
这些象征意义和我们潜意识中愿望的实现有关
which relate to the fulfillmentof our subconscious wishes.
弗洛伊德认为 我们从梦中醒来
Freud theorized that everything we remember
所记得的一切
when we wake up from a dream
都是我们无意识的原始的想法 冲动和欲望的象征性表现
is a symbolic representation of our unconscious primitive thoughts, urges, and desires.
弗洛伊德相信 通过分析那些被记住的要素
Freud believed that by analyzingthose remembered elements,
梦境会浮现在我们有意识的大脑中
the unconscious content would be revealedto our conscious mind,
而且由压抑所产生的心理问题
and psychological issues stemmingfrom its repression
就能迎刃而解
could be addressed and resolved.
我们做梦是为了记住
We dream to remember.
为了提高某些思维作业的效率
To increase performanceon certain mental tasks,
睡觉是好的 但睡觉时能做梦就更好了
sleep is good, but dreaming while sleeping is better.
2010年 研究人员发现
In 2010, researchers found
受试者如果在第二次尝试之前
that subjects were much better at getting
梦到迷宫
through a complex 3-D maze
就会在通过时 表现得更好
if they had napped and dreamed of the maze prior to their second attempt.
事实上 和那些在两次尝试前
In fact, they were up toten times better at it
没睡觉的人
than those who only thought of the maze
或者虽然睡了但没有梦到迷宫的人相比
while awake between attempts,
他们的表现要好上10倍
and those who napped but did not dreamabout the maze.
研究人员认为 某些记忆过程
Researchers theorize that certainmemory processes
可能只有当我们睡着后才会发生
can happen only when we are asleep,
而我们的梦就是这些过程正在发生的一个信号
and our dreams are a signal that these processes are taking place.
我们做梦是为了遗忘
We dream to forget.
大脑结构中大约有
There are about 10,000 trillionneural connections
亿万条神经连接
within the architecture of your brain.
它们的形成来源于你所想所做的每件事
They are created by everything you thinkand everything you do.
1983年 有关做梦的神经生物学理论——反向学习
A 1983 neurobiological theory of dreaming,called reverse learning,
提出睡觉时 主要是快速眼动睡眠周期
holds that while sleeping,and mainly during REM sleep cycles,
新的大脑皮层会审视这些神经连接
your neocortex reviewsthese neural connections
并弃除没必要的连接
and dumps the unnecessary ones.
如果没有这个在你的梦境中发生的忘却的过程
Without this unlearning process, which results in your dreams,
你的大脑会被无用的连接蹂躏
your brain could be overrun by useless connections
寄生的思想也会扰乱你醒着时需要进行的
and parasitic thoughts could disruptthe necessary thinking
必要思考
you need to do while you’re awake.
我们做梦是为了保持大脑的正常运转
We dream to keep our brains working.
持续激活理论指出梦境出于
The continual activation theory proposesthat your dreams result
大脑持续巩固和创建长期记忆的需要
from your brain’s need to constantlyconsolidate and create long-term memories
从而使大脑得以正常运转
in order to function properly.
所以当外界信息输入降低到一定水平时
So when external input fallsbelow a certain level,
比如你睡着时
like when you’re asleep,
大脑就会自动从存储记忆中激发数据的产生
your brain automatically triggers the generation of data from its memory storages,
以你在梦中经历的想法和感觉的形式
which appear to you in the form of the thoughts and feelings
展现出来
you experience in your dreams.
换句话说
In other words,
你的梦可能是你的大脑打开的
your dreams might be a random
一个随机的屏保程序
screen saver your brain turns on
所以你的大脑并没有完全关闭
so it doesn’t completely shut down.
我们做梦是为了演练
We dream to rehearse.
梦境里包含危险和威胁的情况很常见
Dreams involving dangerous and threateningsituations are very common,
原始本能训练理论也表明
and the primitive instinctrehearsal theory
梦境对其目的来讲十分重要
holds that the content of a dream is significant to its purpose.
无论是在一个充满焦虑的夜晚 在森林中被熊追赶
Whether it’s an anxiety-filled night of being chased through the woods by a bear
还是在黑暗的小巷中击退日本忍者
or fighting off a ninja in a dark alley,
这些梦都能训练自己的搏斗或逃生本能
these dreams allow you to practiceyour fight or flight instincts
并使这些本能保持敏捷可靠
and keep them sharp and dependable
以防真实生活中需要
in case you’ll need them in real life.
但是梦境并不总是不愉快的
But it doesn’t always haveto be unpleasant.
比如 你做的关于迷人的邻居的梦
For instance, dreamsabout your attractive neighbor
实际上也可能锻炼到你的生殖本能
could actually give your reproductiveinstinct some practice, too.
我们做梦是为了疗伤
We dream to heal.
在睡眠的快速眼动阶段 大脑中的压力神经递质活跃度大大降低
Stress neurotransmitters in the brainare much less active during the REM stage of sleep,
即使在梦中经历创伤时也是如此
even during dreamsof traumatic experiences,
这使得一些研究人员提出
leading some researchers to theorize
仅仅是简单的做梦 就能削弱痛苦经历的影响
that one purpose of dreaming is to take the edge off painful experiences
从而有助于心理治疗
to allow for psychological healing.
用更少的精神压力重新审视你梦中的灾难性事件
Reviewing traumatic eventsin your dreams with less mental stress
可以使你更有远见
may grant you a clearer perspective
更有能力用心理学上健康的方式处理这些事
and enhanced ability to process themin psychologically healthy ways.
有一定情绪障碍和创伤后精神紧张性精神障碍的人通常都有睡眠问题
People with certain mood disordersand PTSD often have difficulty sleeping,
这导致一些科学家相信——缺少做梦
leading some scientists to believethat lack of dreaming
可能是加重他们疾病的因素
may be a contributing factorto their illnesses.
我们做梦是为了解决问题
We dream to solve problems.
你的思维在梦中不受现实和传统逻辑规则的束缚
Unconstrained by realityand the rules of conventional logic,
可以创造出无限的情景
in your dreams, your mind can createlimitless scenarios
来帮助你分析和解决问题
to help you grasp problems and formulate solutions
而这些方法你可能在清醒时都想不到
that you may not consider while awake.
约翰•斯滕贝克称之为“睡眠委员会”
John Steinbeck called itthe committee of sleep,
研究也已经表明做梦对解决问题的有效性
and research has demonstrated the effectiveness of dreamingon problem solving.
著名化学家奥古斯特•凯库勒
It’s also how renowned chemistAugust Kekule
就是通过做梦发现了苯分子的结构
discovered the structureof the benzene molecule,
这也是有时候解决问题的最好方法 是把问题留到第二天解决的原因
and it’s the reason that sometimes the best solution for a problem is to sleep on it.
这些只是最杰出理论当中的一些
And those are just a few of the moreprominent theories.
科技进步提升我们理解大脑的能力
As technology increases our capabilityfor understanding the brain,
某天我们发现 做梦背后的确定原因——是有可能的
it’s possible that one day we will discover the definitive reason for them.
但在那天到来之前 我们只要继续做梦就好了
But until that time arrives, we’ll just have to keep on dreaming.

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视频概述

做梦是有原因的~

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收集自网络

翻译译者

海参崴

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审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2W85Dwxx218

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