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为什么本是无情杀手的猫咪变成了乖乖宠物

Why Do Vicious Killers Make Good Pets?

感谢patreon上的支持者们 让我们有幸被各位看见
This episode has been brought to you by our super generous supporters on Patreon.
猫咪 通常可爱粘人爱玩耍
Cats, they’re so cute and cuddly and playful
但只要有机会 它们就会变成不折不扣的杀手
and they would absolutely murder you if given the oppotunity.
在它们天真无邪的外表下
Beneath that wide-eyed cuddly veneer
掩藏着一颗冷酷杀手般的黑心
lies the blackened heart of a cold calculated killer.
在美国 猫咪们每年
Every year in the United States,
会杀死几亿的小鸟和小型哺乳动物
cats kill literally billions of birds and small mammals.
它们似乎与生俱来有着表演的天赋
Sure they’re only acting according to instinct.
但它们可是全球
But they have been listed as
前100最俱侵略性的物种之一
one of the 100 worst invasive species on the planet.
岛屿上野生的猫咪们
And free-ranging cats on islands have been blamed for
可以导致全球33个不同的物种灭绝
the global extinction of 33 different species.
尽管这数目还不如猫的种类多
Though not as prolific as cats,
狗狗们和猫一样 也是杀手
dogs can certainly be killers too.
狗的近亲 如苍狼
Close relatives of dogs like the grey wolf
因为它们无尽的杀戮欲
are among the most successful predators on the planet.
跻身于全球最成功的捕食者之列
Yet despite their insatiable bloodlust,
猫和狗到目前为止算是世界上最受欢迎的宠物了
cats and dogs are by far the most popular pets in the world.
美国宠物产品协会近期的调查表明
A recent survey by the American Pet Products Association
估计单单在美国共有九千四百万只猫咪
estimates that there are a staggering 94 million pet cats
和八千九百万只狗狗
and 89 million pet dogs in the US alone.
这已经超出全球人口的一半了
That’s like over half of the human population.
这个数据还真是令人疯狂
That is an insane amount of killers living among us.
可它们又是如此的惹人喜欢
But they’re so cuddly and lovable.
然而这样一想
But hold on a second,
这二者之间或许有什么关联呢
could there perhaps be a connection here?
是什么使得这些残酷的杀手变成家里的好宠物呢
Is there something about vicious killers that makes them good pets?
[音乐]
[Music Playing]
我从来不觉得自己是个有多喜欢猫的人
I never consider myself much of a cat person
直到我遇到了这个家伙
until I wound up with this guy.
它的名字叫里科 全名是里卡多·戏精·蒙特尔班
His name is Rico, full name Ricardo “Flopper” Montalbán,
是以一位著名的墨西哥男演员的名字命名的
named after the late great Mexican actor.
[科林斯的皮革 你最好的选择]
Corinthian leather, of course why not the best?
看它僵硬的假摔
And his hard flopping tendency.
是的 我是个完完全全的猫奴
Yes, I’m now officially a cat person.
当我深深的为它的魅力而着迷时
While I was quickly entranced by his cuddliness and charm,
我情不自禁的会想
I couldn’t help but get the feeling that
它不杀我的唯一理由应该是
the only reason he hasn’t tried to kill me yet
我给了它好吃的并且我比它大的多吧
is because I give him food and because I massively outweigh him.
那猫咪的暴力倾向与它们当宠物时的可爱模样
So is it possible that cats’ proclivity for violence
会不会有一定关联呢
is in some way connected to their likability as pets?
为了寻求答案 我们先来看看
To answer this question, let’s take a look at
除了娇小可爱
why exactly we love cats so much
还有什么使得我们如此喜爱猫咪
aside from just their cuteness.
在在网络上观看猫咪视频数个小时后
After hours of diligent research watching cat videos on the Internet,
我把人们对于猫咪的喜爱
I’ve broken down the human love for cats
归于它们几种可爱的类别
into several different categories of likability.
第一种 我们来看看嬉闹的样子
First, let’s take a look at playfulness.
收养了里科之后我发现
One of the first things that I noticed after adopting Rico
扔球给它就别指望它会捡回来
was that I couldn’t just throw ball and expect him to fetch it.
如果我想和它玩
If I wanted to get him play,
我必须要模拟出捕猎的场景
I had to simulate the experience of hunting.
就好像玩具是一个活物一般
As if the toy itself was a living creature
它才会有耐心的去追踪
that he could patiently stalk
然后等到恰当的时机一击命中
waiting for just the right moment to attack.
对于这样的行为有一个解释
And there’s a good reason for this behavior.
猫咪是专食肉动物
Cats are obligate carnivores.
它们赖以动物的肉体生存
They need nutrients found in animal flesh to survive.
捕猎对于以前野生的猫咪来说是必要的技能
Hunting is necessary for cats in the wild.
即使经过几个世纪的驯化
And the instinct to hunt hasn’t gone away
它们体内还保有这样的天性
despite centuries of domestication.
从科学方面来讲 游戏是满足成年猫咪
It’s been theorized that play is a way for adult cats
捕猎欲的方法之一
to satisfy their urge to hunt
同是也能锻炼小猫爪子和眼睛的协调能力
and for kittens to develop their paw-eye coordination,
强化肌肉以及提升它们突袭的技能
strengthen their muscles and practice their pouncing skills
对主人来说 这应该也很有趣吧
which also happens to be very entertaining for the human counterparts.
所以其实猫咪平时的游戏变相的相当于锻炼凶杀的能力
So the fact that playtime for cats is essentially murder practice
这也表明这些狠毒的动物是怎样演变成好宠物的
seems to support the hypothesis that vicious animals make good pets.
当然 这并不是人们喜欢猫咪的唯一理由
Of course, this isn’t the only reason that humans love cats.
依偎
Cuddliness!
结果证明这是一个重要的生存工具
Turns out this is actually an important survival tool.
猫咪三周大时
Until a kitten is three weeks old,
还不能调节自身温度
they’re unable to regulate their body temperature.
所以它们会往母亲或者兄弟姐妹们身上靠
So they curl up with their mom and siblings for warmth and safety.
如果我们收养的小猫经过了一定的驯养
If a kitten is properly socialized and exposed to humans at a young age,
它们也会把我们视为一个可依偎的伙伴
they will see us as potential snuggling partners as well.
当然很多其他的动物也会互相依偎
Of course lots of animals snuggle too,
包括肉食动物中的猴子 企鹅
not just carnivores like monkeys, penguins
甚至是海龟 犀牛夫妇们
and even this turtle hippo couple.
所以猫咪的依偎看起来与谋杀没有什么直接的关联
So cuddliness doesn’t seem to be directly linked with murderousness.
虽然这算的上是社会化的一部分
Although it could also be a component of socialization and bonding.
粘人
Bonding
通过一些观察我们发现猫咪会通过一些小动作 比如轻蹭腿部
Other observable snuggling behavior like rubbing up against her leg.
顶头等来完成气味辨别
And that head-butting thing is basically
从而来识别主人
your cat’s way of marking you with its scent.
这叫做allorubbing
This is called allorubbing.
通过把你的气味和它自己的混合
By combining its scent with yours, your cat is basically
它就知道你是它社会团体的一部分
acknowledging that you’re a part of its social group
并且加强这个团体的一致性
and reinforcing the group on an identity.
有个长久以来关于猫咪的错觉就是
An old misconception about cats is that they’re
猫咪是被迫群居的 其实它们喜欢独居
aloof loners that have been forced into cohabitation.
但这并不是真的
But that’s not true.
猫咪其实相当’社会’ 野生的猫咪会自然的形成一个紧密的领地
Cats are actually very social. Feral cats will naturally form tight colonies
母猫们会一起在领地工作
and female cats in the colony will often work together,
帮助扶养照顾其他小猫
helping to raise and nurse each other’s young.
但根据最原始的假说
But getting back to the original hypothesis
对于捕食动物们来说社会团体的
what is the importance of social groups for predatory animals.
重要性在于捕食
Well, it might actually have something to do with hunting.
狗的近亲如狼 是成群捕猎的
We know that close relatives of dogs like wolves and coyotes are pack hunters.
协同狩猎在动物王国是相当少见的
Cooperative hunting in the animal kingdom is actually quite rare.
一般只发生在集体利益
and only occurs when the benefits of hunting in a group
大于个人利益时
outweigh the benefits of hunting alone.
但狼 狮子 野狗 人类 甚至海豚
Wolves, lions, wild dogs, humans and even dolphins
都是协同狩猎的
are cooperative hunters.
如果没有良好的协作能力或者彼此间关系不亲近
Their success at hunting would not be possible without their advanced social skills,
那么它们的捕猎基本不会成功
and the close bond they share with other members of their group.
这就是我们要的答案?
So is this our answer?
难道是协同合作所需的社会化使它们变成这副好宠物的模样?
Does cooperative hunting require socialization which makes certain animals good pets?
但还有个问题
Well, there’s a problem with this idea.
狮子们会协同捕猎
While lions are cooperative hunters,
但大部分猫科动物都不会
most felines are not.
猫咪通过它们自己可以完美的捕捉老鼠
Cats can hunt and capture mice perfectly fine by themselves.
短吻鳄和鳄鱼有时候会合作捕猎
Also alligators and crocodiles sometimes hunting groups
但选它们做宠物不是个好的选择
and they’re not exactly great pet material.
因此 猫咪和狗狗能成为好宠物的某些特质
So, certain traits that make dogs and cats desirable pets
可能来源于它们掠夺的天性
do seem to originate from their predatory nature.
但我也知道
But as I’m sure many of you would point out
这不足以证明这有什么因果关系
that’s not enough for a causal link.
那么我们先不思考是什么使得猫咪和狗狗成为好宠物
So maybe instead of asking what makes cats and dogs good pets,
我们来想一想为什么猫咪和狗狗是是作为宠物的第一选择
we should be asking why are cats and dogs pets in the first place.
难以确定究竟人们是在什么时候开始驯化狗狗的
It’s hard to pin down exactly when humans begin domesticating dogs,
但DNA表明
but DNA evidence suggests
这可能是在四万年前 冰河时代末期
that it may have started as early as 40,000 years ago,
早于文字的出现
long before the invention of writing and the end of the last Ice Age.
有这样一种说法说
One theory is that some packs of wolves
狼群会在人类狩猎聚会时跟随过来
began following around human hunting parties.
那时的狼很温顺的呆在人类身边
The wolves that were more comfortable around humans
以求方便的食物的供应
found a convenient food supply
猎人会把动物尸体的遗骸留给它们
in the remains of carcasses left behind by the hunters.
随着时间流逝
Over time,
有一些狼开始同猎人一起打猎
some of these wolves could have begun participating in hunts alongside humans,
帮助他们捕捉猎物
helping them to take down prey
最终成为猎人们捕猎的得力助手
and eventually becoming permanent hunting partners.
事实上 尼安德塔人的人消失
In fact, the disappearance of Neanderthals
与狗狗们被驯化始于同一时期
began around the same time as a domestication of dogs.
很可能是因为捕猎时狗狗们的帮助
It’s possible that our early dog hunting companions
给了我们进化的优势
gave us an evolutionary advantage,
使得我们超越了尼安德塔人
allowing us to out-compete the Neanderthals
最终也使得他们灭绝
and ultimately leading to their extinction.
所以狗狗是帮助人类捕猎
Okay! So dogs helped human hunters
但猫呢
but what about cats.
很多明确的证据表明
There’s definitely a lot of evidence
从早期文明 如古埃及开始 猫就是受人崇敬的
that cats were revered by humans from early civilizations, like the ancient Egyptians.
最早开始驯化野猫的人
But the first humans to tame wild cats
很可能是纳图夫人
were possibly the Natufian
一万年前他们居住在地中海东边
who lived in the eastern Mediterranean around 10,000 years ago.
不同于游牧民族 纳图夫人一般只在小范围内活动
The Natufian lived in a mostly sedentary society unlike their nomadic peers,
我们现在一致认为他们是农业的发明者
and are widely regarded as the inventors of agriculture.
作为第一个农耕社会
As the first agrarian society,
当然也是第一次和农产品 粮食的“敌人”竞争
it would also have been the first to contend with the enemies of agriculture and grain in particular-
尤其是老鼠
-“mice”.
家猫的祖先
The wild ancestors of house cats
最早迁入农场
probably moved into early farm settlements
用来捕捉老鼠
to prey on the large mouse and rat populations.
由于猫咪对农业的帮助
Ancient humans likely saw in cats an effective pest control system
古人也会时不时逗猫咪玩
that also provided snuggles on occasion.
所以狗狗和猫咪有别于一般宠物
So dogs and cats are more than just pets.
它们是人类进化史的一个重要部分
They are a huge part of the evolutionary history of our species.
它们帮助我们从游牧民族
They helped us grow from nomadic hunter-gatherers
进化到定居的农业社会
to permanent settlers of agrarian society.
如果没有它们对凶杀的深谙 我们就不可能发展至今
And none of this would have been possible without their mastery of murder.
它们的娇小可爱和依偎也帮助了我们
Their cuteness and cuddliness have probably helped too.
谁是可爱的凶手
Who’s a cuddly murderer?
你是可爱的凶手
You’re a cuddly murderer.
对吧 你是
Yes, you are.
非常感谢我们在patreon的工作人员的努力 才能完成本视频的播放
Big thanks to all of our Patreon supporters for making this show possible.
如果你有什么好的素材 可以在patreon上私聊我们哦
If you want to help support the Good Stuff, just check us out on Patreon.
当然如果你们对科幻小说或怪诞喜剧极度狂热的话
Also, if any of you guys are fans of low-budget sci-fi or ridiculous comedies,
可以观看我们的另一个节目
You should check out this other show that we’re working on.
这个节目叫做 *在太空
The show is called * in Space.
不好意思这个名字需要屏蔽 它可能含有敏感字眼 不过真的很有趣哦
I can’t say the name without bleeping it because it’s not safe for work, but it’s pretty fun.
感谢克雷格本·兹恩 机器人山姆·格兰的参演
Also starring Good Stuff producers Craig Benzine, Sam Grant as the robot,
以及马特为宇宙飞船的配音
and Matt also does the voice of the spaceship.
最近我们正在为这个节目的资金筹款
And now we’re trying to raise a little money to help finance the show,
所以如果大家可以捐出一点小钱或者分享活动链接到朋友圈
so if you guys could chip in a few bucks or share the campaign link with your friends
那真是太好不过了 感谢大家
that would be awesome. Thanks guys!

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译制信息
视频概述

家里的猫主子,狗主子原来有这么凶残的一面。

听录译者

yu

翻译译者

秣子

审核员

审核员H

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7JjjZUP8nnA

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