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为什么蠢货总觉得自己学富五车

Why Do Stupid People Think They're Intelligent?

欢迎收看《Thoughty 2》
Hey, Thoughty 2 here.
你是否发现自己时常跟人争论一些很傻的话题
Do you often find yourself getting into arguments with people over stupid stuff,
比如 为什么地球就不能是扁平的?
like why the Earth can not possibly be flat
或者 月亮是否真的是由奶酪构成?
or whether the moon is genuinely made of cheese?
其实在你心中
And in your own mind,
你几乎可以百分百确定地球是个扁圆形的球体
you are almost 100 % certain that the Earth is oblately spherical,
月亮也很不幸地是由古老无趣的石块组成
and the moon is unfortunately not made of delicious melty cheddar,
并非美味融化的奶酪
but boring old rocks.
但很神奇的是 在和这些蠢货的争辩中
Yet incredibly you end up losing these arguments
你竟然输了
against utterly moronic people.
你很清楚你明明该赢的
You know you should have won the argument
你提供了无数个无法推翻的证据
and you provided them with countless irrefutable evidence,
但无论你怎么说
yet no matter what you say,
你就是不能改变他们的想法
you somehow fail to change their mind,
也丝毫不能撼动他们在错误观点上
or remotely shake their ostentatious self-confidence
那夸张的自信
in their erroneous views.
为什么和这些蠢货争辩总是特别难?
Why is it so difficult to argue with stupid people?
为什么他们就是不听经过实践的证据
Why do they fail to listen to empirical evidence
反而更愿意相信
and instead favour the wisdom
一个臭哄哄的怪老头在酒吧里说的歪理?
that the smelly old weird bloke told them at the pub?
为什么他们经常认为
And why do they often think themselves
自己比言行所表现出来的更聪明
far more intelligent than their words and actions
并且希望你也能认同这点?
would lead you to believe?
让我们一起看看吧
Let’s find out.
对于这个让人挫败的现象
Neuroscientists think there are very real
神经学家认为 它有真实的且让人惊叹的原因
and fascinating reasons and explanations for this frustrating phenomenon.
但在讲述这些原因前
But before we talk about these,
我们首先得确认我们的猜想是否正确
we must first establish whether our suspicions are true,
即 人们是否认为自己比想象中更聪明?
do people think they’re smarter than they are?
在过去二十年间
Over the past twenty years,
两位社会心理学家一直试图回答这个问题
two social psychologists have been attempting to answer this question,
他们是David Dunning和Justin Kruger
David Dunning and Justin Kruger.
David Dunning在看完1996年的《世界年鉴》
David Dunning was inspired to begin this research
一篇专题文章后深受启发 随即开始了调查研究
after reading a feature in the 1996 World Almanac.
文章是关于匹兹堡一个银行抢劫犯
About a Pittsburgh bank robber,
名叫 McArthur Wheeler
McArthur Wheeler,
他在光天化日之下 持枪抢劫银行
who held up a bank at gunpoint, in broad daylight,
并且不戴面罩
without a mask.
但奇怪的是
But strangely,
他的脸上涂满了柠檬汁
his face was covered in lemon juice.
当警察稍后在他家将其逮捕时
When the police arrested him later at his home,
他说:“我脸上涂了柠檬汁啊!”
he said: “but I wore the juice”.
他解释说
He explained how,
既然柠檬汁有时候会被用作隐形墨水
since lemon juice is sometimes used as invisible ink,
那如果把柠檬汁涂到脸上
he thought that by covering his face in lemon juice
人们就应该看不到他了
he would somehow become invisible to other people
摄像头也拍不到他
and the security cameras.
显然 为了确认他的理论是否正确
He apparently took a picture of himself whilst wearing the lemon juice
抢劫前他事先涂好柠檬汁 并自拍
before the robbery to confirm this theory.
据Wheeler所述 很明显的是
Remarkably obvious, according to Wheeler’s own account,
照片里并没有他的脸
his face was not visible in the photo.
警察也无法解释这个现象
Police were never quite able to explain this.
不过 对于这位试图用柠檬汁让自己隐身的小伙
But then, this is a man who tried to make himself invisible with lemon juice.
我就不做太多评价了
I wouldn’t put too much thought into it.
受到这种脑残行为的启发
Inspired by this blatant idiocy,
Dunning决定与Kruger合作
Dunning teamed up with Kruger,
进行一系列的实验研究
and conducted a series of experiments
他们让实验参与者就语法 逻辑推理
in which they got participants to rate themselves on their grammar,
以及幽默感这三方面对自己进行评价
logical reasoning and sense of humour.
然后把之前参与者做的一系列测试的结果
They then compared the participant’s self-appraisals
与他们的自评相对比
with the results of a series of tests they asked them to complete.
这项研究结果表明 人们很一致地认为
The studies all concluded that people consistently
自己在各个方面比想象中
rate themselves as being far more competent at everything
要出色得多
than they actually are.
其实绝大多数参与者在测试中的表现
Most people in the studies performed far worse
比自己所认为的差远了
on the tests than they believed they had done.
1980年 一位瑞典心理学家做了一份民意调查
A poll in 1980 conducted by a Swedish psychologist illustrated this nicely
结果显示93%的美国司机认为自己的驾驶技术
when it showed that 93 % of American drivers
高于平均水平 这份调查是个很好的例子
considered their driving ability to be above average.
因为你仔细想想
Just think about that for a second,
这个数字根本不合理
the maths don’t quite add up.
这份调查显示 我们绝大部分人会高估自己
The research shows that an overestimation of our talents is something
而有些人
we, mostly, all do,
在这方面比其他人更自负
albeit some of us significantly more so than others
而且一个人越是没有才华和/或才智
and that the more inferior a person’s talent and/or intelligence are,
他就越容易高估自己的才华和/或才智
then the greater the degree with which they overestimate these.
造成这一现象的主要原因
One of the biggest factors driving this is
是大脑的自我中心偏差
the brain’s natural egocentric bias,
它于1979年首次被心理学家发现
first identified by psychologists in 1979,
原来我们的大脑特别钟情于自己
It turns out that the brain absolutely loves itself
为了显示自己的厉害 它愿意做一切事情
and does everything it can do to makeitself look good.
经过多次研究发现
Repeated studies have demonstrated that
自我中心偏差存在于每个人和每个年龄段
the egocentric bias is present in all types and ages.
例如 我们倾向于和积极正面的事情紧密相连
For example, we tend to associate ourselves very closely with positive events,
并把他人取得的成就归功于自己
and we take credit for things that other people have achieved,
比如说”咱们队踢得真棒!”
such as “ My team played well ”,
反之 当我们支持的球队输了的时候
whereas when our favourite sports team loses
我们就会说“他们踢得真烂”
we try to distance ourselves
以此来撇清关系
“ They performed poorly ”.
同样地 当我们的薪酬过高时 我们觉得很正常
Similarly, we have no problem when we are overpaid for work,
但如果是别人 我们就会觉得有点不公平
but we think it’s a bit unfair when others are.
开车比我们快的 我们认为是疯子
We think that anyone who drives faster than us is a lunatic
而开车比我们慢的 我们认为是傻子
yet anyone who drives slower is an idiot.
你现在懂了吧
You get the idea,
你大脑认为 自从有单细胞生物以来
your brain thinks it is the best thing
它就是最厉害的
since single-celled organisms.
但这和争论的胜负有什么关系呢?
But how does this relate to winning arguments?
基本上 为了面子 你的大脑可以做任何事
Basically the brain will do absolutely anything it needs to
不管什么情况下
in order to save face.
它都必须是最棒的
Your brain must look good no matter what,
尽管有时候这需要忽略事实 捏造事实
even if this involves ignoring facts, making up facts
或者恐吓比你聪明的对手 直到对方认输
or browbeating your intellectually-superioropponent into submission.
其实你的大脑并不是为了使坏而使坏
Now your brain isn’t being a dick for the sake of it.
从进化上来讲 自我中心偏差
Evolutionarily the egocentric bias
是自我保护的另一种解释
makes a lot of sense for self-preservation.
毕竟 一个猎人从其他猎人手里盗取猎物
The hunter that steals the prey from other hunters
这让他存活下来的几率更大
is a lot more likely to survive after all.
在我们明明输掉一场争辩时
Our egocentric bias is so strong
自我中心偏差能让我们相信 其实自己才是赢家
that even when we irrevocably lose an argument,
这就是自我中心偏差的厉害之处
we convince ourselves in our own minds that we somehow won.
传奇作者戴尔•卡耐基
As the legendary author Dale Carnegie
在其开创性作品《人性的弱点》中写道:
of the seminal “ How to Win Friends And Influence People ” wrote,
“你不可能通过争辩获胜
“ You can’t win an argument –
十次有九次 其结果是争辩的每个人
Nine times out of ten, an argument ends
都更加无比坚定地相信
with each of the contestants more firmly convinced than ever
自己是对的”
that he is absolutely right. ”
然而 还有另外一个原因
There is, however, another reason
让学识渊博的人在和吸收知识如海绵般
why learned people often walk away from arguments with those
天资聪颖的人争辩后
who possess the intellectual aptitude
带着无比挫败的情绪离开
of a veritable sea sponge feeling wholly disappointed.
那就是 我们通常会害怕高智商的人
There is a general fear amongst the human race of intelligence,
就连知识分子也同样如此
even amongst the intelligentsia themselves.
这个真实存在的现象
This is a very real phenomenon
已经被无数神经学家注意到
that numerous neuroscientists have observed –
诚然 我们崇拜智商超群的人
true, we admire those of heightened intelligence
但同时 我们也害怕他们
yet we simultaneously fear them.
在现代社会 我们已经无需害怕
In modern society, we have no need
在体力上比自己强大的人
to fear those of superior physical might over oneself,
除非你去挑逗了他的老婆
unless you just made a pass at their wife.
假设你在晚餐聚会时 遇到一个身材魁梧的家伙
But say you meet a huge burly bloke at a dinner party
他拿的枪比你整个人还大
with guns larger than your entire torso.
大部分人都不会被他吓到
Most of us could converse with him rather happily,
且能够和他愉快地交流
without feeling intimidated.
但如果你晚餐聚会遇到的是
Yet if we meet a weedy old professor
一个又老又瘦的天体物理学教授
of astrophysics at a dinner party
他对广义相对论的了解
who knows general relativity
比你知道你车钥匙放哪儿 都更清楚
better than you know where you left your car keys,
于是突然一下子 说不清为什么
then suddenly, and for reasons which are unclear to yourself,
你就觉得他很可怕
you feel intimidated by him.
当然你也许觉得他并不可怕
Perhaps you don’t, if so, congratulations,
那么恭喜你 你要么才智过人 要么是个疯子
you’re probably rather intelligent or a psychopath.
很奇怪的是 造成这种差异的原因
The reason for this disparity
又和大脑的自我中心偏差有关
is strangely related to the egocentric brain.
我们都知道 健美运动员为了增肌
We know how the bodybuilder gained his mass,
需要在健身房辛苦锻炼和增加蛋白质摄入
by relentlessly pounding the gym and protein.
我们很清楚 如果能像他们那样努力
We know that if we could be half as arsed or inclined as he,
终有一天 我们也能在体能上达到相同的水平
then we too could match his level of esteemed physical prowess,
变得强壮魁梧
and look like a Soviet tank.
很重要的一点是
And most importantly,
我们通常可以预测到他的想法和行为
we can usually predict his intentions and actions,
我们不需要变得像他一样强壮
We don’t need to be as strong as him
才能知道他接下来要干嘛
to know what he’d probably do.
如果我们惹怒他了
if we piss him off,
他就会一拳打在我们脸上
he hits us in the face.
但科学家就不一样了 除非我们比他更聪明
Yet the scientist, unless we are intellectually superior than he,
但就算比他更聪明
and even if we are – then
我们也无法预测他要说什么或者做什么
we will be unable to predict what he might say or do.
他可能会说一些我们听不懂的话
He could say something that will reveal
这就暴露了我们的智商 显得我们很弱智
our lack of intelligence and make us look stupid.
因此 我们害怕科学家
Thus we fear him.
和健美运动员不一样 大多数人觉得
To compound this fear, unlike the bodybuilder
就算我们读了100本书
most of us will feel that
也无法达到科学家的智商水平
even if we read 100 books
于是我们就更害怕科学家了
we could never reach the scientist’s level of intelligence.
更悲观的是
And rather pessimistically,
调查显示
research supports the idea
很多人还不一定能读完100本书呢
that many people are most likely, unable to do so.
就像我在之前的视频里说的一样
As I have previously covered in another video –
我们都有能力去提高我们的晶体智力
we all have the ability to improve our crystalised intelligence,
增加常识和知识储备量
our bank of facts and knowledge,
可是一旦我们过了25岁
but once we hit our mid-20s
大脑的可塑性就变弱了
the brain becomes less plastic,
并不是整个大脑 但大部分已经很稳定了
It is not totally, but mostly set in its ways.
大脑的框架已经构建完整了
The framework of your brain has been built,
就好比一辆已经组装好的汽车一样
like a car that has already been built,
零部件可以替换并且升级
parts can be swapped out and polished up,
但归根结底
but ultimately, there’s a hard limit
一辆汽车的使用是有寿命期限的
to what one can do with its performance.
因此 我们一过25岁
And thus, after our mid-20s,
就失去了提高流体智力的能力
we lose the ability to improve our fluid intelligence,
而流体智力是我们快速学习技能
that is the ability to pick up new skills quickly,
迅速反应 智胜对手
think on the spot, outwit your opponents,
以及解决问题的能力
and problem solve.
因此 如果科学家不仅仅在晶体智力上超越我们
So, if the scientist has not only greater crystalised intelligence,
而且在流体智力上也高于我们
but also greater fluid intelligence than us,
那么我们就会下意识地知道
then we subconsciously know
这种智力水平
that this is a level of mental acuity
恐怕是我们一辈子都难以达到的了
that we are most likely, unable to ever reach.
从生物学上来讲 我们对这种可能性
Biologically we are hard-wired
会本能地感到害怕
to be scared of this prospect,
也会很自然地排斥我们无法超越的人
and we will feel a natural propensity to repel that which we cannot better.
所以 有时为了自卫 你可能会对科学家
So you may defensively say something
说一些就算是笑话 也听起来很蠢的话
rather stupid to the scientist, even if it is a joke
比如“哟 科学家 你觉得你特聪明 是吧?”
such as ‘oh, a scientist, you think you’re so clever, don’t you?’
尽管他并没有做什么特别的事让我们感到害怕
even if he gave us no obvious reason to feel so intimidated.
这样会带来交互影响
This has a reciprocal effect –
一般来讲 聪明的人会察觉到对方的害怕情绪
clever people are generally well aware of others’ fear,
然后就开始怀疑自己的才智
and distrust of their intelligence
因此在和别人争辩的时候 会变得不自信
and so feel less self-confident when in argument or debate with a peer,
尽管他们知道自己本可以很轻松地获胜
even if they know they couldeasily win.
而且 大部分人变得聪明
Also, most people become intelligent
是因为他们倾向于
because they have a proclivity to
质疑周围的一切 包括他们自身
question their surroundings and their self.
通常来讲 聪明的人往往都很清楚
Intelligent people are generally more aware of the fact
自己并非无所不知
that they don’t know everything.
尤其是在科学领域
– especially in the scientific fields
对自己的理论进行批判
it is normal and expected
并接受同事和同行的盘问
for one to criticise their own theories
这是很正常的 且每个人都会这么做
and for their colleagues and peersto cross-examine them.
因此 聪明的人会永远质疑
Thus smart people will always question
自己是否真如想象中那般聪慧
whether they are as intelligent as they think they are,
自己是否表达清除了自己的意见
whether they put their own point across adequately,
如果在争论“奶酪月亮”和“地球扁平论”时
And if, perhaps their opponent does in fact
虽然对方提出的观点很荒谬疯狂
have a point in their ardent cheesy moon and flat Earth beliefs,
他们听起来可能精神不正常
as bonkers as they may sound.
那么他们在结束了争辩后
So they will come away from the debate
脑子里就会充满了疑问和自我怀疑
with their heads swirling with questions and self-doubt.
相反 蠢货几乎不可能去质疑事情
Conversely, stupid people are far less likely
更不用说质疑自己
to question things including themselves.
他们不怎么反省自己
They tend to be less introspective.
这大概就是为什么他们还是这么蠢吧
That’s probably why they are still so stupid.
所以他们无比坚定地相信
So they seem and are
那些毫无根据的荒谬的理论
far more confident in their moronic, unfounded theories.
他们也用不着去质疑这些理论
They don’t need to question them
也不管和实证相比 这些理论是怎么来的
or see how they actually stack up when confronted with empirical evidence
因为他们从来没有这么做过
because they have never done this before
也丝毫没有一点自我怀疑精神
and they possess not a shred of self-doubt anyway.
还有一点 正如邓宁克鲁格效应证实的那样
To add to all this, as the Dunning-Kruger effect proved,
蠢货几乎从不认为自己是蠢货
stupid people rarely think of themselves as stupid.
他们的智商甚至不如一块瑞士奶酪
They have absolutely no idea
而对此他们毫不知情
that they have less intelligence than a Swiss cheese.
正如Dunning和Kruger的研究显示
As Dunning and Kruger’s research demonstrated,
一个人缺乏智慧和他对自己智商的盲目自信
there is a direct correlation between a lack of intelligence
有着直接的联系
and one’s high confidence in their own intelligence
反之亦然
and vice-versa.
简单来讲
To put it simply,
无能的人认为自己是专家
inept people think they are proficient
而专家则认为自己并没有那么厉害
and proficient people think themselves less so.
请记住这点:Dunning Kruger的实验所反映的
Keep in mind that the Dunning Kruger effect is not an absolute
只是一种普遍现象
but a general trend,
并不是所有蠢货都会高估自己的智商
not all stupid people overestimate their intelligence
而一些很聪慧的人
and some intelligent people
非常清楚自己的聪明才智
are very aware of how smart they are,
也很乐意讲给愿意倾听的人
and will happily tell anyone who will listen.
在此我引用一句非常棒的名言
I’ll leave you with a brilliant quote
是由去世的喜剧大师乔治•卡林所创
by the late great comedian George Carlin
相信所有对人类这些蠢货感到绝望的人们
that anyone who has ever despaired with human stupidity
都会引起共鸣
will certainly sympathise with
“想想一个普通人能有多蠢吧
“Think of how stupid the average person is,
再想一想 我们当中一半的人比那还要蠢”
and realize half of them are stupider than that. ”
我最近发表了我的第一本书
I’ve recently launched my first book
叫做《 竖个旗帜:英国及其他国家的千年奇史》
which I’m crowdfunding ‘ Stick a Flag in it:
这本书目前还在众筹中
1,000 years of bizarre history from Britain and beyond’.
不过众筹金额已经完成
The crowdfunding campaign has reached 100%
所以这本书绝对会出版
so it’s definitely going to be published,
在此感谢所有投资的人
Thanks to everyone who has pledged.
但还有一些额外的目标尚未达成
But there are still stretch goals to reach.
所以 如果你想要这本初版签名书
So if you want a first-edition signed copy
那么就赶紧去unbound出版网站资助我吧
then head on over to Unbound publishing.
它的链接在描述框里 祝今天愉快
The link’s in the description, and pledge today.
谢谢
Thank you.

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译制信息
视频概述

原来在高估自己的背后,还真的有心理学现象

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Cecilia

审核员

审核员_XY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oFL5NoM9GVE

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