ADM-201 dump PMP dumps pdf SSCP exam materials CBAP exam sample questions

为什么一些物种在城市中得到繁衍 – 译学馆
未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

为什么一些物种在城市中得到繁衍

Why do Some Species Thrive in Cities?

自从十九世纪中期 阿德莱德市的哺乳动物多样化水平已经下降了四分之一多
Since the mid-1800’s, Adelaide’s mammal diversity has fallen by more than a quarter,
纽约已经失去了将近一半的本地土植物
New York City has lost nearly half of its native plants
至少有25种蝴蝶已经从罗马消失
and at least 25 species of butterflies have disappeared from Rome.
我们现有的丛林对野生动物来讲难以生存 但仍有幸存下来的动植物
Our concrete jungles can be hard on wildlife, but there are plants and animals that survive
甚至在它们之间茁壮生长
– even thrive in them.
有些幸运的种群恰巧自然地适应城市环境
Some lucky species happen to be naturally suited to cities.
比如 英国常春藤和野岩鸽就爬上并栖息在垂直的建筑上
For instance, English ivy and rock pigeons climb and roost on vertical structures like
就像在树上和悬崖上一样 所以砖墙和高耸入云的壁架都是很好的替代品
trees and cliffs anyway, so brick walls \u00a0and sky-high ledges are fine substitutes.
杂食浣熊从靠与玉米煎饼的无休止斗争为生到吃蟑螂
And omnivorous raccoons thrive on an endless buffet of everything from corn chips to cockroaches,
使其种群密度双林地中高出10倍
helping them live ten times more densely in cities than in woodland habitats . Natural
自然适应性也可帮助动物适应大城市的生活压力
flexibility can also help animals cope with the streeses of metropolitan living:coyotes
占据城市的土狼更常在夜间活动 以尽量少与人类碰面
that colonize cities often become more nocturnal to minimize their encounters with humans.
大多数物种并不能轻松适应城市生活
Most species can’t adopt an urban lifestyle so easily.
不过几代后基因改变 有助于某些群体适应城市生活
But over several generations, genetic change can help some populations evolve into city slickers.
纽约白足鼠就是如此
New York City’s white-footed mice are one example: DNA sequencing suggests that these
DNA测序说明“城里人”基因与“乡里人”的不同 体现在30多处地方
urban dwellers’ genes differ from their country cousins’ in more than 30 significant ways.
我们仍不知这些变化会带来什么影响 但我们知道
We don’t yet know exactly what effects these changes have, but we know they’ve shown
它们出现在抵御疾病 处理毒素的基因中
up in genes involved in fighting disease and processing toxins, traits that likely help
这些特征很可能帮助老鼠在钢筋水泥间活下来
mice survive in crowded landscapes .
我们常认为进化过程很慢 所以紧跟城市化步伐的快速进化
We usually think of evolution as a slow process, so evolving fast enough to keep up with urbanization
似乎是天方夜谭
may seem like a tall order.
不过 巨大挑战来袭之下
But when a big challenge springs up suddenly , an uncommon trait that helps individuals
较少见有助于适应的特征将很快成为常态基因
cope can become the genetic norm surprisingly fast – especially in speedy breeders – because
快速繁殖动物尤其如此,因为没有这种能力就没有机会繁殖
those without it may not get a chance to reproduce.
例如 21世纪中期 当工厂向哈得孙河排放数千吨有毒多氯联苯
For example after factories dumped thousands of tons of toxic PCBs \u00a0into the Hudson River
当地99%的鳕鱼仅花了60年
in the mid-twentieth century, it took just just six decades for 99 percent of the local
就进化出能阻止有毒物质进入细胞的保护性变异
tomcod to evolve a protective mutation that blocks the toxin from entering their cells.
在法国蒙彼利埃市区内的野草不到12年内就开始长出
And in Montpelier, France, it’s taken fewer than 12 years for urban weeds \u00a0to start producing
大多较沉的种子,显著提高种子落在附近土壤
a larger proportion of heavy seeds, boosting their odds of settling in a patch of nearby
而非混凝圭土的几率。
soil instead of crash-landing on concrete.
城市郊区种群在基因和地理上渐行渐远
As urban and rural populations diverge genetically and geographically, there’s even a chance
甚至一些物种可能分为两种
that some could split in two.
这不是说城市有利于生物多样性 亦非城市是生物的“死区”
This doesn’t mean that cities are a boon for biodiversity , but they aren’t biological
它更像是充满偶然的实验室
dead zones either – they’re more like accidental laboratories where the limits of life’s
生物极限适应性在其中 不断被探索 品味
adjustability \u00a0are being tested…and tasted.

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

某些幸运物种天生就适合在城市生活,自然适应性也可帮助动物适应大城市的生活压力,占据城市的土狼更常在夜间活动,以尽量少与人类碰面,大多数物种并不能轻松适应城市生活,不过几代后 基因改变,有助于某些群体适应城市生活。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

petrichor

审核员

嘉言先森

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4LDGzXpei8k

相关推荐