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为什么有的人对辛辣的食物忍耐力那么高? – 译学馆
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为什么有的人对辛辣的食物忍耐力那么高?

Why Do Some People Tolerate Spicy Food?

你可能注意到了人们对于辛辣食物的忍受力
You’ve probably noticed that people have wildly different tolerances, when it comes
有着很大的差异
to spicy food.
你的朋友可以吃完一整碗的红辣椒 浇蘸上额外的辣汤 而你
Your friend can eat an entire bowl of chili — doused with extra hot sauce — while you
或者说我 也许我们不得不把那碗东西送回厨房 然后点一碗
or said me, maybe we have to send that bowl back to the kitchen, and order something little
没那么辣的
less spicy.
譬如黄油面
Like buttered noodles.
是什么原因导致了这种差异呢
What gives?
然而 科学家们并不确定是什么让一些人狼吞虎咽的吃下哈瓦那人用洋葱做的辣调味汁
Well, scientists don’t know for sure what allows some people to gulp down habanero salsa
就像喝水一样 但这里面可能混合了很多因素
like it’s water, but it’s probably a mix of several factors.
一则 有些人可能仅仅是天生的对调味品没那么敏感
For one thing, some people may simply be born with less sensitivity to spice.
那是因为辛辣是被一种叫做TRPV1的辣椒素受体来侦测的
That’s because spiciness is detected by a sensory receptor called TRPV1.
辣椒素受体是一些蛋白质 对体温变化发生反应
TRPV1 is a little protein that opens up in response to physical temperature, but also
当它和像辣椒素这样活性分子结合时也会产生反应 这也就是为什么一点墨西哥青椒就会
when fiery molecules like capsaicin bind to it, which is why a bite of jalapeño will
让你的舌头感觉像是在燃烧
make your tongue feel like it’s on fire.
科学家们知道产生辣椒素受体蛋白质的基因序列因人而异
Scientists know that gene sequences that produce the TRPV1 protein vary from person to person,
所以它能变成稳定版本受体的几率或多或少的
so it could be that certain versions of the receptor are more or less responsive than
超过其他基因
others.
还有一个因素是你用了多少你的辣椒素受体
There’s also the matter of how much you use your TRPV1 receptors.
许多研究表明人体有一种脱敏效果 当人们吃了
Lots of studies have documented a kind of desensitization effect, while people who eat
很多使辣椒变辣的辣椒素混合物 将不得不吃
a lot of capsaicin, the compound that makes hot peppers spicy, will have to eat even
甚至更多的辣椒素以品尝到同样水平的辛辣
more capsaicin in order to taste the same level of spiciness.
所以 人们可能因为他们更加经常吃辛辣食物而对辛辣有更强的忍受力
So, people might have higher spice tolerances because as they eat spicy food more regularly,
他们逐渐不感觉那么辣得烧了
they literally aren’t feeling as much burn.
所以就用拉差辣酱来冲破对辣的忍受力极限吧
So just hit it with that siracha!
另一个研究表明对于一些人来说并不是辛辣食物消耗更少 相反
Another theory suggests that it’s not that spicy food burns less for some people — instead,
有些人就是喜欢那种燃烧的感觉
it’s that some people like the burn.
如果你是吃玉米粉蒸肉或咖喱长大的 那你很容易学会享受
If you grow up eating tamales or curry, it could be that you simply learn to enjoy the
这种感觉 因为你经常接触
sensation because of repeated exposure.
或者说 这种燃烧本身可能是真正的吸引你
Or, the burn itself could be the real draw.
毕竟 问道任何辣椒爱好者是否能感受到那种热量他们会很肯定的告诉你
After all, ask any chili-head if they can feel the heat, and they most certainly tell
他们可以…… 那就是他们喜欢的东西
you that they can… that’s what they love about it!
一个心理学家称这个现象为良性的受虐狂
One psychologist calls this phenomenon benign masochism.
就像坐过山车 这是一个做危险事情的安全方法
Like a roller coaster ride, it’s a safe way to do something dangerous.
有一种研究甚至将此和人格类型联系起来
One study has even linked this to personality type.
在一群大多都是白人的大学生中 喜欢吃辣的人
Among a group of mostly white college students, people who reported liking spicy foods were
更有可能是寻求刺激的人
more likely to be sensation seekers.
所以 如果你对辛辣有很强的忍受力 可能一部分原因是你的基因 或者
So, if you have a high spice tolerance, it could be partly because of your genes, or
因为你长期的饮食是塔巴斯科辣沙司而降低了你的敏感性
because you’re on a constant diet of Tabasco sauce that lowers your sensitivity…
但最可能的是因为你是已经学会仅仅去享受舌头的麻刺感
But it’s most likely to be because you’ve simply learned to enjoy that tongue-tingling.
感谢提问 特别感谢我们在Patreon上的赞助商
Thanks for asking, and thanks especially to all of our patrons on Patreon.
Patreon是一个人们可以在上面浏览并且可以给那些他们想要让其继续存在的作品投资
Patreon is the site where people can go and give money to things that they want to keep
的网站
existing.
所以如果你接着想要保存这些回答 或者如果你想要给我们提问
So if you’d like to keep these answers coming, or if you’d like to submit questions for
让我们来回答 你可以上patreon网站或者SciShow
us to answer, you can go to patreon.com/SciShow.
如果你想要帮助我们解决问题 通过及时观看我们的更新
And if you wanna help us out just by watching, and watching whenever a new episode comes
我们将对此感到很高兴 希望你们也是 你可以访问YouTube网站或scishow观看
out, we would love that, hopefully you would too, and you can do that by going to youtube.com/scishow
搜索来做这个
and subscribe!

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对辛辣食物的忍受力高很有可能是因为你的基因,又或者你从小就吃辛辣食物长大,已经习惯了

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嬏姬

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XgbKrC2vh_I

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