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为什么有的动物会吃粪便?

Why Do Some Animals Eat Poop?

嗨 我是艾米莉 这里是MinuteEarth
Hi, this is Emily, from MinuteEarth.
人类会吃很多奇怪的东西
Humans eat lots of weird stuff,
但是有一种我们永远都不会吃的东西 那就是“粪便”
but one thing we almost never eat is poop
可能是因为我们天生恶心它
either because we’re naturally grossed out by it,
也可能是因为我们已经了解到粪便上有肮脏的病原体
or because we’ve learned that poop contains nasty pathogens.
但是对于大多数动物而言粪便是一种普通的食物
But for lots of animals, feces is a regular part of the menu.
部分原因是由于粪便不像我们想得那样危险
That’s partly because poop isn’t necessarilyas dangerous as we think.
当然 生病的动物的粪便会包含许多致病菌 病毒以及寄生虫
While poops from sick individuals can contain disease, causing bacteria, viruses, and parasites,
而且会污染粪便所及之处
and contaminate anything they touch,
健康动物的粪便通常都只有水 无害的细菌
heathly poop are usually just water, harmless bacteria,
未被消化的食物 以及一些代谢物和死细胞
undigested food, and some metabolic waste and dead cells.
毒物防控中心认为 无论是人类还是动物
Poison control centers consider accidental ingestion of poop –
意外摄入粪便 产生的毒性非常小
human or otherwise – to be minimally toxic,
医生甚至把健康人的粪便制成药丸 来开处方
and doctors even prescribe poop pills from healthy people
用来治疗肠道感染病
to combat hard to treat gut infections.
因为通常情况下 消化过程
And because the digestive process doesn’t
并不能吸收食物的所有营养物质
usually manage to suck all the nutrients out of food,
所以粪便是有营养的
poop is nutritious.
比如食草动物 三分之一的食物营养物质会遗留在粪便中
Herbivores, for example, leave a third of food nutrients in their poop.
结果 像屎克螂 苍蝇之类的动物
As a result, animals like dung beetles and flies subsist
会几乎完全依赖其他动物粪便的营养而存活
almost entirely on nutrients from the poop of other animals.
几千年来
And for thousands of years,
人类在猪圈上面搭建厕所
humans have built toilets over pig stys
因为猪能从人类粪便里摄取几乎全部的营养物质
because pigs can get almost all of their nutrition from human poop.
一些狗会狼吞虎咽地吃掉它们看到的屎
And while some dogs will snarf down most poops they come across,
实际上 很多狗
lots of dogs will actually
会用它们敏锐的鼻子去寻找
use their keen noses to sniff out fresh
那种包含它们需要的特殊维他命或酶的新鲜粪便
poop that has specific vitamins or enzymes they’re craving.
一些动物通常会吃它们自己的粪便 来提取残余的营养物质
And some animals regularly extract leftovernutrients from their own poop.
比如 当大猩猩吃了摘亚木坚硬的种子后
For example, when gorillas feed on the hard seeds of the Dialium tree,
它们的肠细菌 会软化坚硬的种子 但是不会从中摄取很多营养
their gut bacteria soften the tough seed but don’t extract many nutrients.
所以在食物匮乏时
So when times are tough,
大猩猩经常会吃掉它们的排泄物来提取种子中所包含的
gorillas will often eat their excrement to extract the seeds ’
所有脂肪和纳
full complement of fat and sodium.
当南洋食火鸡吃了食火鸡李子
And when the southern cassowary eats cassowary plums,
这种水果很大
the fruits are so big
而这种鸟的消化道却极其短
and the bird’s digestive tract is so short
以致于食火鸡在排便的时候 会排泄出整个果实
that the cassowary poops out whole chunks of the fruit;
食火鸡会掉个头 拾起果实吃掉 再次消化它 循环往复
it then turns around and picks them out to eat – and digest – again.
其他动物一定会吃他们自己的粪便
Other animals absolutely have to eat theirown poop.
比如 兔子吃很多同样的食物
For example, rabbits eat lots of the same foods
像牛的反刍一样
that ruminants like cows do,
但是 牛有很长的复杂的消化道
but while cows have long, complex digestive tracts
会给微生物时间来分解坚硬的植物细胞
that give the microbes inside time to break down the tough plant cells,
兔子有相对较短的肠道
rabbits have much shorter guts.
所以在享用了一顿美味的植物大餐后
So, after a yummy plant meal,
它们会排出柔软的被黏液覆盖着的串形粪便
they poop a soft mucus-covered cluster
粪便包含部分未被消化的食物 以及负责消化食物的微生物
that contains the partially digested food and the microbes in charge of digesting it.
然后为了再次吸收营养物质
Then they gobble the whole package back up
并且把微生物带回到它们的肠子里
in order to recover the nutrients and
它们会把这整包粪便狼吞虎咽地吃掉
bring the microbes back into their guts.
最后 兔子排出的粪便才算是真正意义上的粪便
Finally, the rabbit poops real rabbit poop.
树袋熊也是如此 它们必须吃掉自己的粪便
Koalas, too, must eat their own poop.
或者 至少吃掉它们自己母亲的粪便
Or at least their own mom’s poop.
它们有吃桉树叶子的特殊饮食习惯
They have a specialized diet of eucalyptus leaves,
这种叶子是多纤维的但同时也是有毒性的
which are both fibrous and toxic,
而树袋熊幼崽并不是天生就有
and their babies aren’t born
专门分解这种毒素的细菌
with the specialized bacteria needed to break it down.
几周过后 树袋熊幼崽只能吃这种 半流食
So for several weeks, the baby just eats pap:
这是妈妈精心为孩子制作的
a soft, green poop chock full of those bacteria
软软的绿色的富含这种细菌的粪便
that the mom makes special for her little one.
这种半流食能供给营养而且还提供给幼崽
Pap both supplies nutrients and gives the baby
未来消化食物所需要的微生物
the microbes it needs to digest its future food.
这种幼崽食物可谓首屈一指
As baby food goes, this number two is second to none.
给婴儿喂粪便是一件很奇怪的行为
Feeding your baby poop is a pretty strangestrategy.
但是 把自己的幼崽喂给一个捕食者是一件更加奇怪的行为
But feeding your baby to a predator is an even stranger one.
当一只短尾矮袋鼠妈妈走投无路时
When a quokka mom gets cornered,
她有时会把一只可怜的幼崽扔出她的育儿袋
she sometimes ejects a helpless joey from her pouch and
然后掉头跑掉
runs the other way.
这在某种程度上说的通
And this actually sort of makes sense –
她有备而来!
she has a spare!
通过看Animalogic的最新视频 我知道了这个
I learned this by watching the newest video from Animalogic.
如果你喜欢了解动物
If you like learning about animals,
你会喜欢Animalogic 在这个频道里
you’ll love Animalogic,
丹尼尔把她的解说能力与绘画技巧相结合
where Danielle combines her explanatory powers with her drawing skills
来教会大家想要了解的
to teach you everything you’ve ever wanted to know
从可爱的海獭到异形蜂的任何与动物相关的事情
about animals ranging from cute sea otters to xenomorphic wasps.
请收看动物逻辑 订阅“YouTube.com/animalogic”
Check out Animalogic, and subscribe atyoutube.com/animalogic.

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视频概述

哪种动物会吃粪便 以及它们吃粪便的原因|生物

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ubt2fl11v5E

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