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为什么大家分享和相信假新闻呢? – 译学馆
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为什么大家分享和相信假新闻呢?

Why Do So Many People Share and Believe Fake News?

[片头]
[♪ INTRO ]
当你看到一篇文章有上万的转发量
When you see an article with tens of thousands of retweets
并且有一个你不能认同的夸大标题
and an exaggerated headline that you don’t agree with,
我们很容易去责备假新闻
it’s easy to blame fake news.
然而从这点来看 假新闻不过是一种模仿行为
And while it might seem like as this point nothing more than a meme,
假新闻是真实存在的
fake news is a real thing.
假消息通过网络像野火一样扩散
Misinformation spreads across the Internet like wildfire,
并且可能比真消息
and might even spread more
散布得更快
quickly than real news.
但是为什么?
But why?
这涉及到人类心理学
Well, it all comes down to human psychology
和人类大脑如何处理新信息
and how our brains deal with the new information.
科学家对相信错误信息的认知基础
Scientists have been studying the cognitive basis
作了长时间的研究
of believing false information for a long time.
研究最早始于上世纪70年代
Studies going back to the 1970s have looked
该项研究调查了人们如何看待
at how people view new information that goes
与已知信息相悖的信息
against things that they’ve already been told.
例如 在1975年的一项研究中
For example, in one 1975 study,
高中生和大学生被要求比较
high school and college students were asked to compare
两份自杀遗书 并辨认出真实的一个
two suicide notes and identify the real one.
大部分学生都做得很好 他们有时能识别出真正的遗书
Most students did okay — they could sometimes identify the real note,
但并非总是如此
but not all the time.
但后来一些学生被告知
But then some students were told
他们在任务完成上要么真的好 要么就是做得不好
that they were either really good or really bad at the task.
紧接着 研究人员透露他们说谎
Later, the researchers revealed that they lied and
并澄清每个人真的都做得很好
clarified that, everyone really just did okay.
但学生们仍然认为 他们在任务上
But students still thought that they were better or worse
比实际情况做得更好或者更糟
at the task than they actually were
他们被谎言所困
— the lies stuck with them.
这项研究和所有其他研究
Along with other studies on everything
从经济决策到医疗信息一起
from economic decision-making to medical information,
全都表明人类不是很有逻辑
all this research shows that humans aren’tvery logical.
甚至是当我们得到应该调整我们信念的消息时
Even when we ’ re given information that should adjust our beliefs,
比如认识到某事是一个直白的谎言的时候
like learning something is a straight-up lie,
我们很难放弃
it ’ s hard for us to let go
对一个人 或一种情况的最初感觉
of how we initially feel about a person or a situation.
一个可能的因素是证实偏差:
A possible factor in this is confirmation bias:
我们倾向于更相信
we tend to be more convinced by ideas
支持我们信念的想法
that support our beliefs,
而相反的信息看起来不那么可信
while opposing information doesn’t seem so trustworthy.
部分原因是心理学家所说的动机性推理
This is partially because of what psychologists call motivated reasoning.
基本上 我们倾向于得到想要的结论
Basically, we’re motivated to reach conclusions that we want to reach.
如果你被诊断出有严重的健康问题
Like, if you ’ re diagnosed with a nasty health condition,
你更倾向于找出
you ’ re more motivated to find
检查结果可能出错的理由 而不是找出同意它的理由
reasons why the test might be wrong than reasons to agree with it.
没有生病 对你来说更好
It’s better for you if you’re not actually sick.
此外
On top of that,
我们倾向于相信我们的观点是正确的而其他人是错的
we tend to believe that our views are correct and other people are wrong,
特别是他们的观点和我们的不一致时
especially if their views disagree with ours.
这叫作天真现实主义
This is called naive realism and
让我们很难区分现实和舆论
makes it hard for us to separate facts and opinions.
这些心理模式显示出
These psychological patterns show
我们的大脑很容易被假消息误导
that our brains can be pretty easily led astray by misinformation.
但这不能完全解释假新闻在网上传播迅速的原因
But this doesn ’ t completely explain how and why fake news goes viral.
根据一项综合调查
Part of the problem might be the fact that,
部分原因可能是
according to a pretty comprehensive survey,
超过半数的美国成年人从社交媒体了解消息
over half of U.S. adults get at least some news from social media.
信息太多以至于
There ’ s so much information,
很难分辨哪些资源可靠
and it can be hard to tell which sources are credible.
例如一篇关于椰汁可以让你长寿的博客
Like, a blog post about how coconut water makes you live longer
可能不会像科学的新闻稿一样经事实查证过
probably isn ’ t fact-checked like a scientific press release,
但是可能在推特上被迅速转发
but it might make for a viral tweet.
社交媒体公司积极推广
And social media companies are motivated
那些能获取最多关注度和浏览量的新闻
to promote whatever gets the most traffic and attention,
而真正的事实并不重要
which isn’t necessarily what’s true.
这可能会陷入虚幻真理效应
This could also play into the illusory truth effect:
它的观点是我们倾向于
the idea that we tend to believe information
相信我们反复接触到的信息不论它是否真实
we’re exposed to repeatedly, whether or not it’s true.
2016年社会科学科研计算机网上的耶鲁大学的研究
A 2016 study at Yale, shared on the open-access platform SSRN,
对这种效应做了测试
tested for this effect.
他们使受试者接触真实和虚假的新闻信息
They exposed participants to both real
之后用人口问题干扰他们
and fake news headlines and then distracted them with demographic questions about themselves.
在同一个时间或一周后
Later in the same session or after a week,
参与者接收到更多新闻信息
participants were presented with more headlines.
然后参与者认为之前看到的故事都变得更精确了
And they rated stories they ’ d seen before as more accurate
即使是令人难以相信的事情
— even pretty implausible ones.
举个例子 其中一个假新闻是关于
For example, one of the fake headlines was
全国范围内禁止所有有同性恋关系的电视节目
about a nationwide ban on all TV shows with gay relationships.
这个效应有点道理
This effect kind of makes sense —
当大量的人不停讨论相同的故事
when a whole bunch of people keep talking about the same story,
这就似乎比任意一个人
it seems to have more credibility
在街道角落喊出这件事
than if one random dude was shouting it on
更具有可信度
a street corner.
但是这些信息被分享一定是有原因的
But these headlines have to be shared fora reason.
实际上相比真信息有更多人分享假信息
And fake news actually seems to be shared more than real news.
2018年四月 一项发表在《科学》的研究
A study published in Science in March 2018 looked
通过2006到2017年间推特发布的
at how fake news is spread using social media,
大量纵向的数据
with a massive longitudinal data
调查了假信息使用社交媒体进行传播的方法
set following Twitter stories from 2006 through 2017.
这些数据包括3百万用户分享的12.5万个信息
It included over 125,000 stories shared by around 3 million users,
然后发现 假信息比事实传播得更快更远
and found that fake news spreads farther and faster than the truth.
与其他范畴如科技或生态信息相比
This was especially true for political news,
对政党信息来说 假消息传播得尤其快
compared to other categories like scientific or economic news.
在2016年 这个结果与BuzzFeed的数据一致
These results go along with data from Buzzfeed in 2016,
这表明在当年美国大选之前几个月
showing that false stories were shared
脸书上的虚假信息
on Facebook more than true stories
比真实新闻被分享的次数更多
during the few months leading up to the presidential election that year.
重要的是 这个《科学》的研究发现
And, importantly, this Science study found
是真实的人而不是机器人软件
that fake stories are being shared by real
在分享假新闻
people — not by bot software.
所以不能简单地认为是推特机器人传播假消息
So it ’ s not as simple as blaming Twitter bots for spreading misinformation.
研究者们认为部分原因是假信息的新奇性
The authors think that the novelty of false headlines could partially explain this trend.
可能大多数人转发假新闻
Maybe so many people are retweeting fake news
因为它比真实信息更令人惊讶 让人感兴趣
because it ’ s more surprising and interesting than real news.
在其他关于传播内容的心理学研究中
In other psychology studies on viral content,
人们更愿意分享的故事
the stories that people were more likely to share
使他们的情绪更加激动—不论是积极的还是消极的
made them more emotionally charged — either positively or negatively.
因此 这个想法与上述的心理模式匹配
So this idea fits with that pattern.
所有的这些都很……紧张
Now, all of this is pretty…intense.
所以如果错误信息到处都是并且极易传播
So how can we resist the influence of false news
那我们该如何抵制它产生的影响呢?
if it ’ s everywhere and spreads so easily?
如果第三方事实核对者发现信息可疑
Well, one idea is to tag headlines with warnings
一个办法是用警告标记新闻
if third-party fact checkers have found them to be dubious.
在2016年耶鲁的研究中
In the 2016 Yale study,
这大大降低了标题被认为准确的几率
this significantly reduced the chances that a headline was perceived as accurate,
即使参与者看了很多遍
even if participants saw it a couple times.
另一个策略是更仔细地查看信息来源
Another tactic is to look more carefully at news sources.
当你正在脸书上和苏阿姨争吵
It ’ s easy to lean into confirmation bias
你就倾向于认知偏差
when you ’ re arguing with your Aunt Sue on Facebook
并查找资料去支持你的观点
and looking up sources to back up what you already think.
但你可以更深入地了解新闻媒体和作者
But you can dig deeper into news outlets and authors
去理解他们有什么样的偏见
to understand things like what biases
或他们如何做他们的研究
they might have or how they did their research,
更批判地思考信息来源
and think about sources more critically.
最后 当你看到一条劲爆新闻
And finally, when you see a surprising headline,
在你点击分享 转发 所有朋友可见按钮之前
take a second to reflect on it before you
花几秒反应一下
click on the “share,” “ retweet,”“show all your friends” buttons.
放大劲爆新闻似乎很重要
Shocking stories might seem important to amplify,
但它们不一定是真的
but they ’ re not necessarily true.
如今 网络是个难以驾驭的地方
The Internet is a tricky place to navigate these days,
我很清楚
I am aware of this,
但仍有解决错误信息的方法
but there are ways to handle misinformation.
并且 如果有足够的人和组织
And if enough people and companies keep working
保持这种透明度和批判思考
on this kind of transparency and critical thinking,
这可能对逆转潮流有帮助
it might help to turn the tide.
感谢收看这集“心理科学秀”
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow,
我们的视频是由Complexly出品的
which is produced by Complexly, a group of
我们相信 我们对世界了解越多
people who believe the more we learn about the world,
就会变得越优秀
the better we are at being humans.
如果你想学习更多
If you want to learn even more
关于媒体如何影响我们思考行为的信息
about how media affects how we think and act, we would like
我们希望你可以看看我们在YouTube.com/crash
you to check out our show, Crash Course Media Literacy,
网站上的《媒体文化闪课》
at youtube.com/crashcourse.
[片尾]
[♪ OUTRO ]

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视频概述

为什么大家更愿意分享和相信假新闻呢?在这个信息爆炸的时代,为什么假信息传播如此迅速,我们如何判别信息的真实性呢?欢迎收看心理科学秀,找到其原因

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