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人们为什么加入邪教 – 译学馆
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人们为什么加入邪教

Why Do People Join Cults?

[音乐]
[ ♪OUTRO ]
听到邪教这个词
When you hear the word cult,
你可能会想到一间暗室中有一群穿着长袍的人
you might think of a dark chamber with a bunch of robed people
为了一些古怪的信仰默诵着什么
chanting because of weird, sinister beliefs.
或者是1978年900多人集体自杀的悲剧
Or tragedies like the over 900 people who committed mass suicide
因为他们受到了一个叫吉姆琼斯的人的蛊惑
in 1978 because they were instructed to by Reverend Jim Jones.
想想谁会参加
It’s easy to wonder who would
这样的邪教这很容易
ever join a cult, and assume there
我们会觉得这样的人是有问题的
’ s something wrong with those people.
但是 邪教也有许多不同的形式
But cults come in many forms,
它们也比你想得要更加常见
and are more common than you might think.
大多数情况下
And most of the time,
加入邪教的就是与我们无二的普通人
the people who join are just like you and me.
我们很难定义邪教 对研究者们来说也是
Defining cults is tricky, even for researchers.
他们大都认为邪教是人们对某些观点 事物
They pretty much agree that cults involve extreme devotion to some idea, thing,
或是其他人的执念
or person.
但有些研究者强调宗教因素 称其为新型宗教活动
But some researchers emphasize a religious element, calling them a New Religious Movement.
而有些则侧重于邪教人员对其他人的操纵策略上
Others focus on manipulative persuasion tactics.
还有研究者强调有些分裂组织
And some highlight destructive groups that
他们试图控制并孤立其他人
seek to control and isolate people,
与之相反的是有些组织虽然也会有类似邪教的特征
as opposed to groups that might share some cult-like qualities
但这些特征却是无害甚至对人们是有益的
but aren’t harmful or could even be beneficial.
事实上 一个组织是否是邪教
The reality is, it’s sometimes hard to give a clear-cut answer
标准也并非是那么泾渭分明
as to whether a group is a cult.
但心理学家们也仍试图想明白谁会容易参加邪教及其原因
But psychologists are still trying to figure out who joins cults and why.
许多研究都以招募世界各地前邪教人员
Most studies involve recruiting former cult members
并咨询他们的经历这样的方法来进行
from all over the world to ask them what their experiences were like.
采访邪教人员或在人们参加邪教前去和他们谈话都是很困难的 因此
It’s hard to interview current cult members or people before they join. So,
纵使研究人员从前邪教人员那里得知了很多
while researchers have learned many things from
但仍有许多事情
these people who left, there’s still
是我们不知道的
a lot we don’t know.
但我们已经知道的就足以使人感到惊奇
But what we do know is a bit surprising.
例如 在2007年马德里自治大学
For instance, in one study from 2007
的一项研究中 研究人员
at the Autonomous University of Madrid, researchers
采访了101位前邪教人员发现他们只是普通人
interviewed 101 former cult members and found that they’re just normal people.
有人说他们加入邪教是因为
Some said that they joined cults because they were dissatisfied
他们对自己的生活感到不满
with their life, or were
或是去寻求自我提升或是精神成长 这些都是常见的心理学现象
looking for self-development or spiritual growth, which are totally normal psychological phenomena.
谁都想找到一个集体
Everyone usually wants to belong to a group of people
一个他们能受到关注的集体
that cares about them,
也都想寻求更高层面问题的答案
and might look for answers to big picture questions,
通过工作来提升自己 或去寻求精神上的启迪 有时候
work to improve themselves, or seek spiritual enlightenment. Sometimes,
人们就能在邪教中得到这些
people just find those things incults. And,
尽管这些研究的确定性
even though all this research is far
有待商榷 但仍有许多因素
from conclusive, there might be factors that put
使我们更加容易加入邪教
us more at risk of joining one.
你周围的人就是这些因素之一
Who you’re around could matter.
例如 如果你的家人或朋友已经是邪教的一员
For instance, if your family or friends are already part of a cult,
那么你加入的可能性就更大
your chance of joining is greater.
如果你的家庭不和谐 对你不支持
Same with having a dysfunctional family that ’
或者甚至家庭成员有暴力倾向效果也是一样
s not very supportive or even abusive.
但如果你真的加入了邪教 家庭有时对你也是一种保护
But family can also be a source of protection if you do join.
有一个支持你
Having a supportive family that isn’t
并且不会吹毛求疵的家庭会对你离开邪教提供帮助
judgmental and critical can help you leave.
一些个人特质也会有影响
Some personal qualities might also matter,
比如崇尚精神世界或是信仰宗教
like being more spiritual or religious,
或者太在意他人的观点
or being curious about other people’s views.
在生活中抗压能力弱
People who are having a difficult time in their life,
或是情绪波动较大的人
dealing with stress, or having
他能加入邪教的可能性更大
problems managing emotions or daily life pressures, are also at a greater risk.
这听起来每个人都有(参加邪教)的风险
All this makes it sound like everyone is at risk,
其实也确实如此
which… we kind of are.
但是 2007年的那场研究中
But also in that 2007 study,
前邪教人员将易受人操控列为加入邪教的最重要因素
the former cult members rated manipulation as the most important factor in joining.
邪教人员说服技能多种多样
People usually thought they were joining a normal,
致使人们觉得他们加入的是一个平常又易于身体健康的组织
healthy community, because of various persuasion techniques and lies.
这种操控通常是一种长期逐渐的过程
This manipulation is often a long, gradual process,
它会花费几个月甚至几年的时间改变你原有的态度
taking months or years to change your attitudes
来使你对他死心塌地
so that you’ll commit.
组织的领导人员通常都有非凡的人格魅力 也会非常自信
The leaders are typically very charismaticand confident.
他们会做一些事让你喜欢并相信他们
They do things to make you like them and their group,
这就是对你的逢迎
which is called ingratiation.
有时他们会赠送个小礼物或是帮你个小忙
Sometimes they’ll give small gifts or dofavors.
礼尚往来 我们也会想回赠些什么
Thanks to reciprocity, it makes us want togive something back. Then,
这样 他们就把你栓牢了
to get you to stick around,
他们会使用诸如恐惧 侮辱或孤立
they use techniques like fear, humiliation, or
之类的技巧
shutting down any dissent or questions.
此外 他们还会孤立你 限制你的独立性
And they often isolate you, restricting your independence,
比如会限制是否允许你工作或在哪里工作
like if and where you work, and
你能说话的人也会有所限制
whom you’re allowed to talk to.
在你周围的人似乎都相信了该组织的信条
When everyone around you seems to believe in the group’s mission,
任何反对的声音
and any voices that
也很快被终止
say otherwise are quickly shut down,
这时 再质疑这到底是怎么回事就变得很困难
it’s hard to question what’s going on.
如果你又告别了以往的生活 没有工作
And if your old life is gone and you have
也没有朋友和家人去投靠
no job, friends, or family to return to,
离开这组织就更加更加困难
it’s a lot harder to leave.
但这仍是有可能的
But it is possible.
离开后 人们在精神健康上就会出现问题
Once out, people often deal with many mental health problems
因为他们曾经历了精神上的
because of the trauma and
创伤和虐待 这会发展成为创伤后综合征或其他问题
abuse they might have experienced, developing things like PTSD and other issues.
好消息是
The good news is
研究者们在如何更好的帮助人们离开邪教
that research is being done to understand how to better help people leave cults,
回到正常社会以及过上健康生活方面正做着研究
return to regular society, and livea healthy life.
他们用到了许多健康的治疗方法
A lot of therapeutic techniques are involved,
比如关注基础精神健康 分析他们
from focusing on basic mental health to unpacking
最初加入邪教的原因
why they joined a cult
以及使他们从邪教灌输给他们的有害信仰中解放出来
in the first place and unlearning any harmful beliefs the cult gave them.
另一个好消息是
And the other good news is
心理学家们对如何拒绝被蛊惑也略知一二
that psychologists do know a thing or two about how to resist persuasion.
例如 可以对自己进行预先警告
For instance, there’s forewarning:
当你发现某人试图让你
If you know that someone’s going to try to convince
做什么事或买什么东西时
you to do something or buy something,
你可以对他们及他们提供的信息进行消极的评估
you tend to evaluate them and their message more negatively,
这样你就不会轻易相信他们 但是
so you’re less persuaded. But,
2009年波兰奥波莱大学
according to a 2009 study by a researcher
研究员所做的研究表明
at Opole University in Poland, this doesn’t
这并不适用于所有类似信息
work equally well on all kinds of messages.
如果邪教侧重于你的私人生活
Forewarning helps us resist persuasion more if the cult is focusing
预先警告就更能帮我们抵制这种蛊惑
on your personal life.
因为在我们想到自己或个人价值时
Because when we think about ourselves and our personal values,
我们的抵抗性会更强
we’re more protective.
但如果这种劝说关注于类似
But if the persuasion is focused
为什么有关生命 宇宙
on bigger philosophical things, like why the answer
或是所有事的最终答案都是42这类更宏观的哲学问题时
to life, the universe, and everything could be 42,
这种预先警告就没什么用了
the warning doesn’t have as much impact.
所以 想要找到归属感
So it’s normal to want to belong,
搞清楚你是谁 想和酷酷的人为友这都是正常的
figure out who you are, and hang out with cool people.
但并不是每个组织团体都会为你着想 所以 还是小心为好
But not every group has your best interests in mind… so just be careful.
再者 真正好的 为你着想团体也有很多很多
And there are plenty of awesome communitiesout there, too.
谢谢观看本期科学秀
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShowPsych.
如果想了解更多
If you want to know more
关于团体统一性遭到破坏的其他方式
about different ways group identity can get destructive,
你可以观看人们为什么发生暴动这期节目
you can watch our video about why people riot.
如果想继续和我们学习有关人类的知识
And if you want to keep learning about humans with us twice a week,
你可以登录订阅youtube.com/scishowpsych
you can go to youtube.com/scishowpsych and subscribe.
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视频概述

人们加入邪教的原因,以及避免加入邪教的方法

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

秋-凋零

审核员

审核员 AF

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jFCLFfz_pz0

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