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什么驱使人成为伊斯兰极端分子? – 译学馆
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什么驱使人成为伊斯兰极端分子?

Why Do People Become Islamic Extremists?

是什么驱使一个人成为宗教极端分子
What drives someone to become a religious extremist,
甚至成为一个自杀式炸弹袭击者?
even to the point of becoming a suicide bomber?
我曾和大部分人一样
Like most people I assumed that
认为答案有两个:
there were two overriding answers:
贫穷和无知
poverty and ignorance.
贫穷的说法是这样的:
The poverty line goes like this:
那些极端贫困的地区
grinding poverty from which there appears to be no escape
无法缓解贫富之间与日俱增的尖锐矛盾
fosters seething resentment against who those have more.
如果你给穷人提供殉道而死或贫困致死的选择
If your choice is to die a martyr or die a beggar,
他们显然会选择殉道而死
martyrdom is the clear winner.
而以无知为解释的说法是这样的:
The ignorance lines goes like this:
穷人没有机会得到良好的教育
the poor have no chance to get a decent education and
因此容易受人操纵
thus are susceptible to easy manipulation.
心术不正的人给他们灌输偏见和迷信的思想
Clever people play on their prejudices and superstitions.
一旦极端分子控制了这些愚昧的穷人
Once the extremist gets this ignorant poor person in his grasp,
给他们洗脑是再容易不过的事情
indoctrination is easy.
由于世界上贫穷和无知的人口数量极多
Since there’s plenty of poverty and plenty of ignorance around the world,
极端分子可招募的对象人数众多
that’s a lot of people to draw from.
这就是常人对恐怖主义起源的理解
This is how the source of terrorism is explained.
后来 我住在了巴基斯坦
Then, I went to Pakistan
而极端分子一直都在这里进行招募
and actually lived in the world from which extremists recruit.
我发现了出乎意料的事情
And I found something much different than I expected.
贫困和成为极端分子关系并不大
Poverty had little to do with who became an extremist;
而无知和成为极端分子的关系则更小
lack of education even less.
我遇到许多准备以自杀式袭击殉教的宗教极端主义者
Many of those that I met who subscribe to religious extremism and are prepared to murder and die for their cause —
都是出身中产阶级
are from the middle class;
许多还接受过大学教育
and many had a university education.
他们不是穷人 也不是未受教育的人
These are not poor people and these are not uneducated people.
他们衣食无忧 知识渊博
They are well fed and well read.
那么 如果不是贫穷和无知把人变成极端分子
So, if poverty and ignorance don’t drive people to extremism,
真正的原因是什么?
what does?
一个原因是 他们渴望意义和秩序
One is a desire for meaning and for order.
在巴基斯坦这样充斥着混乱和腐败的地方
Places like Pakistan are submerged in chaos and corruption.
伊斯兰主义者对所有乱象提出了一个明确的解决方案
Islamists promise clear cut solutions to every problem:
只要你遵守伊斯兰教义
here’s how things will change if you follow these rules.
一切问题都会得到妥善的处理
And only these rules.
另一个原因是 他们渴望改革
Another is a desire for change.
陈旧腐败的旧秩序必须被推翻
The old order, the narrative goes, must be overthrown
而推翻它只有通过暴力手段才能实现
and that can only happen through violent action.
伊斯兰主义者再次出现
Again, it is Islamists that step in —
承诺他们会建立一个新的政府体制
with a promise to create a new form of government.
他们做出受害者的姿态
Then throw in a strong sense of victimhood —
“这个国家的悲惨现状不是我们造成的
we are not responsible for the sorry state of our country;
是其他人把我们拖下水的”
others have brought us down —
许多人心甘情愿的听信了极端分子的险恶用心
and you have a toxic brew that many willingly imbibe.
当然了
These, of course,
这套简单的话术 都是暴君和煽动者
are the same easy answers that tyrants and demagogues —
如列宁 墨索里尼 希特勒和本·拉登
from Lenin to Mussolini to Hitler to bin Laden —
用来给追随者洗脑的
have always offered their followers.
我在巴基斯坦生活期间看到了这样的一幕
I saw this played out one day while living in Pakistan.
在一次针对要员的谋杀袭击之后
After one of the many assassinations of a major figure there,
我和两位中产阶级的父母坐在一处
I was sitting with two middle class parents.
父亲拥有一个小公司
The father owned a small business
母亲是一位护士
and the mother was a nurse.
他们给儿子提供了优渥的生活
They had given their son a good life.
他们的儿子衣食无忧
He wanted for nothing.
他们告诉我 几天前一家人共进晚餐时
They told me that during dinner with the family a few days earlier,
儿子认为被谋杀的人“罪该万死”
their son noted how the person who was murdered”deserved to die.”
他怎么会这样想?
Why?
他这样说是因为他站在了宗教少数派的立场
Because he had spoken out on behalf of religious minorities.
父母感到震惊
They were shocked.
受到良好教育 生活优渥的儿子
How could their son, who had been educated and well raised,
怎么会有这种想法?
think that?
这个事件十分典型
This story is all too typical.
那么 对于这样的极端主义者应该怎么办?
So what to do about this extremism?
首先最重要的一点是
The first step is to get off this false narrative
要摒弃极端主义源自贫困和缺乏教育这个错误观念
that this is first and foremost a poverty or education issue.
第二是要反驳极端组织的说法
The second is to take on the narrative of the extremist groups.
他们许诺了“更好的世界”
They promise a better way,
但事实上 他们提供的是什么呢?
but what in fact do they deliver?
答案永远是:
The answer is always:
更多的死亡 更多的苦难 更多的贫穷
more death, more suffering and more poverty.
换而言之
In other words,
要让年轻人看到极端组织的真面目
young people need to see these extremist groups for what they are.
只有这样 才能减少被招募的人数
Only then will recruitment numbers begin to go down.
第三 媒体不能把极端分子刻画成“自由战士”的形象
Third, the media have to stop treating extremists as freedom fighters,
在巴基斯坦这种地方 这种形象非常普遍
a narrative that is all too common in places like Pakistan.
第四 老师和家长不能想当然地认为
Fourth, teachers and parents can not assume that
只要自己拒绝宗教极端主义
just because they reject religious extremism,
学生和孩子就会和他们一样
their children and students will, too.
中产阶层的家长和老师要时时警惕
Middle class parents and teachers have to be vigilant
给孩子灌输温和 多元的价值观
in instilling moderate, pluralist values in their children.
第五 巴基斯坦的政客应停止把国家问题归罪于西方
Fifth, politicians have to stop blaming their countries’ problems on the West
他们应从国家内部革除祸国殃民的贪腐之风
and have to confront the endemic corruption that destroys countries like Pakistan from within.
第六 或许也是最重要的一点
Sixth, and probably most important,
伊斯兰宗教人士应停止寻找所谓“解脱”的行为
Islamic religious figures have to stop looking the other way,
或者更可怕的
or worse,
将那些打着伊斯兰旗号谋杀无辜者的穆斯林
glorifying so-called”martyrs” —
宣扬为所谓的“烈士”
Muslims who murder innocent people
即使被“烈士”谋杀的受害者也是穆斯林
— almost always other Muslims — in the name of Islam.
穆斯林宗教领袖应明确告知信众
Muslim religious leaders must promise these murderers
杀人犯只会受到永远的诅咒
eternal damnation,
而不会升入“天堂”永享幸福
not some sort of twisted heavenly bliss.
巴基斯坦这类穆斯林占多数人口的国家
The people of Pakistan and other Muslim majority countries
确实有自己的苦衷
have real grievances.
但无论何时何地
But extremism only makes things worse.
极端主义只会让境况变得更糟
Always and everywhere.
贫穷和苦难不会滋生宗教极端主义
It is not poverty and misery that creates religious extremism.
而是宗教极端主义制造了贫穷 苦难和死亡
It is religious extremism that creates poverty and misery. And death.
我是Haroon Ullah
I’m Haroon Ullah,
乔治城大学外交学院的兼职教授为普拉格大学提供课程
adjunct professor at the Georgetown University School of Foreign Service for Prager University.

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视频概述

人们惯常认为,是贫穷和缺乏教育才会让人受到极端组织的迷惑。演讲人通过亲身前往巴基斯坦的调查证明,事实并非如此。贫困和苦难不会成为极端主义的土壤,是极端主义制造了贫穷、困苦和死亡。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-IchGuL501U

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