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为什么赤道附近生活着更多物种?

Why Do More Species Live Near the Equator?

“This episode is supported by Prudential”
本片由保诚保险公司赞助播出
Here in Tambopata Peru, EO Wilson once found more species of ant in a single tree than
在秘鲁坦波帕塔 爱德华·威尔逊在一棵树上找到的蚂蚁种类
there are in all of the British Isles.
比整个不列颠群岛的蚂蚁种类还要多
Scientists have seen this pattern all over the world.
科学家在世界各处都发现过这种情况
More species exist near the tropics.
在热带附近生活的物种比其他地方的多
Why is that?
为什么会这样呢
In one night here in the Peruvian rainforest, I saw more insects in an hour
在秘鲁雨林的一个晚上 我一小时内看到的昆虫数量
than I’ve seen in my entire life, total.
比我一生中看到的昆虫加起来都要多
It’s not just insects.
不只是昆虫
Birds, mammals, plants…
鸟类 哺乳动物 植物等等
Regions like this, tropical rainforests are some of the most biodiverse places on Earth.
热带雨林是世界上最具有生物多样性的地方之一
It’s not just the abundance of it,
生物多样性不仅指生物数量丰富
it’s how many different species we find in a given area.
也指我们在给定区域发现的生物种类的丰富度
But why is that?
但是 为什么会出现这种情况呢?
It might seem obvious, or even like a silly question, but the more you think about it,
答案可能显而易见 这甚至是一个愚蠢的问题 但越深入思考
the weirder it gets, because life has shown it can succeed pretty much anywhere, from
你会越觉得奇怪 因为从山巅到海底
the top of the highest mountains to the bottom of the ocean.
生命已经证明它们几乎能存活在任何地方
Yet Earth’s most biodiverse places
但地球上最具生物多样性的地方
are always regions like this, tropical rainforests.
总是在像热带雨林这样的区域
One reason why is maps lie to us.
一个原因是 地图欺骗了我们
Rectangular projections are distortions of a sphere that make the poles look bigger and
球体投影成矩形时会产生形变 这一形变使得
tropics look smaller than they really are.
两级看起来比实际情况更大 而热带地区看起来更小
When in reality, the tropics contain about 40% of area on Earth.
而实际上 热带地区面积约占全球面积的40%
Unsurprisingly, larger areas usually have more species.
毫无疑问 更大的面积能容纳更多物种
In less than half a square kilometer in the Amazon, we can find as many tree species as
在不到半平方公里的亚马逊森林里 我们能找到的树种和
we find in four million square kilometers of temperate forest.
在400万平方公里温带森林里找到的物种一样多
Species here are at a higher density.
热带地区的物种密度更高
There must be something special about tropical ecosystems.
热带生态系统一定有特别之处
Climate is one factor.
气候是一个因素
When we look at plant fossils and when and where we can find them
通过观察植物化石 和它们在自然气候历史中被发现的时点
in this climate history, tropical forests are older than temperate forests,
我们发现 热带雨林比温带森林历史悠久
they’ve had more time to get rich.
它们有更多时间来变得富饶
But just because the tropics don’t have cold winters.
然而 因为热带地区没有寒冬
then they survive at ice age doesn’t mean that’s easy to survive here
而渡过冰期的生物未必在热带也易生存
There are dry and wet seasons, they have to competition for resources,
热带有干燥和湿润的季节 有资源竞争
no matter what kind of organism you are, there’s a lot of stuff that wants to eat you.
无论你是什么物种 这里都有许多其他生物想吃掉你
不行 走吧
On average the tropics are warm and they get plenty of water.
总的来说 热带地区气候温暖 水量充足
This part of the planet gets more average solar radiation throughout the year.
这里的植物年均日照量比其他地区更高
Which means that plants and the animals they support get more energy,
这就意味着热带地区的动植物拥有更多的能量
they are more productive.
更高产
But this still only explains why there’s *more* life,
但这只能解释生物数量的丰富
not why so many *different* kinds of life.
而不能解释物种的多样
If you have a pie, more people can get a slice
相比于把一块馅饼切成几份 每份分给一个人
if you cut it up into a thousand tiny ones vs just a few.
把馅饼切成几千份 就能分给更多的人
And in ecosystem we call these slices niches
在生态系统中 我们称这些馅饼为微环境
It’s the conditions, the habitat that one organism needs to flourish,
这是生物繁荣所需要的条件和栖息地
and here in the rainforest, there’s a lot of slices.
在雨林中 有许多微环境
Organisms that live at higher latitudes have to be little more adaptable,
生活在高纬度的生物 其适应能力必须强一些
be able to handle more different conditions.
以便应对不同环境
One week it might be snowing.
可能前一周还在下雪
The next, flowers and fish are everywhere.
紧接着就花开鱼跃
Specialization is too risky, you’ve gotta be adaptable.
只擅长在某种环境生存会太过危险 因此你要变得适应力强
Life is more stable in the tropics.
热带地区的生物更稳定
One thing I noticed here in Peru is the sun sets a lot earlier here this time of year
我注意到 在秘鲁 每年这个时候的日落时间
than what I’m used to back at home.
比我家乡的日落时间要早得多
Here near the equator there’s essentially the same number of hours
在赤道附近 无论在哪个月
in day and night no matter what month it is.
白天和黑夜的时间都几乎相同
Let’s say you’re a bird that eats insects, and maybe these bats over here
假如你是吃昆虫为生的鸟 或者以那里的蝙蝠为食
You’ve got the same number of hours to do your feeding.
你们捕食的时间是相同的
The birds get the day shift, the bats get the night shift.
鸟类白天捕食 蝙蝠晚上捕食
You get to split that niche evenly.
你们平分了这个微环境
That wouldn’t work at higher latitudes and more temperate climates.
这一现象在高纬度和温和气候下不会发生
There’s simply just too much change, too much disruption for these species to keep track of.
因为会有很多变数 很多因素会干扰这些生物规律
And this might explain a reason why more species coexist near the equator.
这可能是生物更多在赤道附近共存的原因
The tropics are crowded, so the competition for resources is extreme.
热带地区很拥挤 因此对资源的竞争很激烈
That competition drives organisms to specialize, like how we see ants or caterpillars that
竞争迫使生物变得善于在某种特定环境生存 就像我们所看到的一些蚂蚁或毛毛虫
might be able to live on just one single type of plant.
它们可能只能生活在一种植物上
But because climate and seasons are more stable, that specialization isn’t as risky.
但由于气候和季节较稳定 专精于某一环境并不危险
More species, less area.
更多的物种 更小的区域
These theories are really good at explaining
这些理论很好地解释了
why there’s so many species in the tropics NOW, we’re still missing the beginning
为什么热带有这么多物种 但我们还没解释一开始的问题
where those species came from.
即这些物种从哪里来
It’s possible that evolution is actually working on overdrive here near the equator, speciation,
在赤道附近 进化很可能加速进行
the creation of new species by various natural forces,
需要多种因素共同促成的新物种
actually happens FASTER near the equator.
在赤道附近能更快出现
Each generation of living things gathers changes, mutations, some are good,
每一代生物都在积累变化 突变 其中一些是好的
some are bad, some are neither, but it isn’t until those changes are passed on to the next generation
一些是坏的 一些直到传给下一代才会显现
that natural selection and time can do their thing .
自然选择和时间会让一切发生
The reason that bacteria are so good at adapting is because they reproduce quickly,
细菌之所以适应力强 是因为它们繁殖的很快
they have more generations in less time.
在更短的时间内 它们能制造出更多后代
The same thing happens here in the rainforest. Plants and animals
同样的事在雨林里重复上演
grow up faster, they can have more generations.
植物和动物长得越快 它们就能繁育越多后代
This drives competition, this is what forces plants and animals to specialize
这就导致了竞争 迫使动植物像我们之前看到的一样
in all of the amazing ways that we’ve seen.
擅长以一些惊人的方式生存
This theory, that evolution happens faster near the equator, finally ties together the
赤道附近的生物进化更快这一理论
ideas of time, area, and energy to explain the origin of biodiversity.
将时间 面积 能量的概念联系在一起来解释生物多样性的起源
There’s an idea that says the tropics are so well suited to the creation of new species…
一个观点是 热带地区适合新物种产生
that it’s like an engine for biodiversity
它就像产生新物种的引擎
Another idea says the tropics are so rich and productive, and the climate’s so stable,
另一个观点是 热带地区肥沃富饶 气候稳定
that species don’t go extinct as fast.
因此这里的生物不会灭亡太快
More species are born here and species live longer here
在热带地区 生物繁衍更多 生存时间更长
The tropics are like a cradle AND a museum.
这里既像一个摇篮又像一个博物馆
Scientists even think that over many many years, species from places like this
科学家甚至认为 多年后 这些地方的物种会
go and seed biodiversity throughout the rest of the world.
遍布世界其他地方 形成生物多样性
This is why it’s so important to protect the rainforest
这就是保护雨林的重要性
to preserve life’s cradle and museum.
保护雨林就是保护生命的摇篮和博物馆
To keep it from being cut up,
让它们免遭砍伐砍伐
because more area means more species.
因为更大的面积意味着更多的物种
To keep the climate from changing, to keep this place stable and rich.
保持气候稳定 保持该区域稳定富饶
Chemists know all the elements on the periodic table
化学家了解元素周期表里所有的元素
Physicists probably know all the subatomic particles that make up matter.
物理学家可能了解所有构成物质的亚原子粒子
But biology still hasn’t answered one of its most basic questions:
但生物学里 一个最基本的问题还没有答案
how much life IS there?
那就是 这里有多少生物?
EO Wilson once wrote that “unlike the rest of science,
爱德华·威尔逊写道 “和其他科学不同
the study of biodiversity has a time limit”.
生物多样性的研究有时间限制”
If species begin to go extinct faster than we can describe them
如果我们描画生物的速度比不上生物灭亡的速度
then we might never know how much life Earth has to offer.
那么我们就永远不知道地球养育了多少种生物
And after seen something like THIS, I don’t want to see that happen.
在看过热带的风景之后 我不希望发生那样的事情
Stay curious.
保持好奇
Thanks to prudential for sponsoring this episode.
感谢保诚保险公司赞助本栏目
The time between when people think
从人们打算存退休金
they should start saving for the retirement
到真正开始存钱
and when they actually do is known as the action gap.
这段时间间隔叫做行动间隔
According to a recent survey conducted by prudential,
保诚最近进行的调查显示
the average American start saving for retirement
美国人开始存退休金的平均时间
seven years later than they think it’s best.
比他们认为最佳的时间晚了7年
That can cost you 410676 dollars in your life time.
这会让人们多花410676元
I did that my head.
这是我心算的结果
Another prudential study found that one in three Americans is not
保诚的另一项研究称 三分之一的美国人
saving enough for their retirement.
没有存够退休金
You can go to RaceForRetirement.com
你可以去RaceForRetirem网站上
and see how the action gap affect you.
看看行动间隔会怎样影响你
I hope you enjoy the first video from our trip to the Peru Amozon.
希望你喜欢我们秘鲁亚马逊之旅的第一个视频
I should add that when it comes to explaining
应当补充的是 关于为什么赤道周围
why there is more species near the equator,
有更多物种这一问题
scientist aren’t totally sure what the right answer is yet,
科学家还不能完全确定答案
but these are the best theories we have right know.
但这些是我们目前已知的最好理论
Remember, that how science works.
记住 科学就是这样
We gotta keep studying them,
想要继续研究这些物种
which means we gonna make sure these species that you want study are still around.
就要确保这些物种仍然存在
I have lots more video from Peru in the coming months.
接下来几个月 我将陆续发布秘鲁之旅的更多视频
So stay tuned.
请继续收看
A special thank you to rainforest expeditions for hosting us in Peru
特别感谢热带雨林探险队接待我们
It was incredible experience,
这是一段美妙旅程
and we cannot wait to share with you
我们迫不及待地想和您分享
the rest of our peru adventure.
接下来的旅程

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视频概述

热带地区生物多样性远高于其他地方,背后原因究竟为何,生物又如何在热带生存,让我们一起来看

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