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人类为什么喜欢疼痛? – 译学馆
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人类为什么喜欢疼痛?

Why Do Humans Love Pain?

– 我的天啊!
– Oh my God.
– (男生嘟囔)我觉得我要死了
– I think I’m gonna die.(man grunts)
– 为什么我们要这么做?
– [Narrator] Why do we do this?
-它非常辣 但它很美味
– It burns but it’s so good.
– 作为一个人 你懂的 痛并快乐着
– As a human being, youknow, pain is pleasure.
-大厨约翰尼说得对
– [Narrator] Chef Johnny is right.
痛苦和快乐是紧密相连的
Pain and pleasure areintricately connected.
当你用火炉烧自己的手
Similar areas of the brain are activated when
以及当你吃饼干时
you burn your hand on the stove,
大脑的类似区域会被激活
and when you bite into a cookie.
要知道的是 吃饼干和烧自己的手
To be clear, eating acookie and burning your hand
不会使你以同样的方式做出反应
won’t make you react the same way,
除非饼干着火
unless the cookie’s on fire.
虽然看起来
But while it may seem
饼干会给我们带来比烧伤更多的欢乐
like a cookie would bring us infinitely more joy than a burn,
但有时却并非如此
sometimes,it doesn’t.
为什么人类喜欢疼痛?[轻快的音乐]
(bouncy,cheerful music)
辣椒素是使辣椒产生辣味的化学物质
Capsaicin is the chemical thatmakes chili peppers spicy.
它是为防止哺乳动物食用而专门进化出的
It was developed specifically to keep mammals from eating them,
但是人类领先一步并开始吃它
but humans went ahead and started eating
总之人类喜欢上了辛辣的辣椒
and enjoying spicy peppers anyway.
所以辣椒给了我们什么?
So what gives?
当我们感到疼痛时 各种产生快感的化学物质
When we feel pain, allsorts of feel-good chemicals
大量分泌进入神经系统来作为一种应对方式
get pumped into oursystem as a way to cope.
内啡肽 大麻素和肾上腺素
Endorphins,anandamide, and adrenaline
都是吃辣鸡翅后出现热嗡嗡声的原因
are all responsible for that heat buzz after a hot wings challenge.
海马组织使内啡肽阻止
The hippocampus orders endorphinsto block the transmission
疼痛信号的传递 并刺激
of pain signals and also stimulate
大脑的边缘叶和前额叶区域
the brain’s limbic and prefrontal regions.
这块区域能让我们喜好奢华的浪漫以及欣赏音乐
That’s where our penchantfor grand romance and appreciation of music lives.
肾上腺素能提高你的心率和兴奋程度
Adrenaline raises your heartrate and excitement levels,
而大麻素则会使你冷静下来
while anandamide chills you out.
大麻素 也就是“极乐化学物质”
Anandamide,aka the bliss chemical,
它大概就是内啡肽的酷酷表亲
is like the endorphins cool cousin.
它和大麻一样与大脑中相同的感受器结合
It binds to the same receptorsin the brain as marijuana,
产生同样温暖 模糊的感觉
and produces the same warm, fuzzy feeling.
不仅仅是化学物质决定我们如何去感受痛苦
And it’s not just chemicals that determine how we feel pain.
我们的大脑非常聪明
Our brains are pretty smart,
它们能够确定什么时候的刺激会引起我们的痛苦
they’re able to determine when a stimulus that’s causing us pain,
但也不是真正的威胁
isn’t actually a threat,
甚至是我们在发出尖叫的时候
even when our bodies arescreaming that it is.
那最初的恐怖瞬间 同时意识到
That initial scary momentcoupled with the realization
我们被感官欺骗了 这实际上给我们带来了快乐
that we’ve been duped by our senses, actually brings us pleasure.
这个概念被称为“良性受虐狂”
The concept is called benign masochism.
它想表达的是我们吃魔鬼辣椒
It’s what tells us it’sfun to eat ghost peppers,
坐过山车或是喝一口过期牛奶都是很有趣的
ride roller coasters, and take a whiff of old milk.
-所以如果我把自己置于
– So, if I put myself in a situation
一个很有可能给我带来痛苦的处境
that is very likely to cause me pain,
这意味着任何积极的经历都会被放大
that means any positive experienceout of that is magnified
因为这些经历的出现是出乎意料 令人惊讶的
because it’s unexpected, it’s surprising.
-在大多数情况下
– [Narrator] Now, for the most part,
我们不惜一切代价避免伤害
we avoid harm at all costs,
但摆脱疼痛是要付出代价的
but getting rid of paincan come at a price.
例如 止痛药能减轻我们的疼痛
For example, painkillers dull our aches
但也会降低我们对快乐的敏感度
but they also blunt oursensitivity to pleasure.
-在我的研究中服用对乙酰氨基酚的人
– People who tookacetaminophen in my studies,
与服用安慰剂的一组相比
compared to a group that took a placebo,
他们对不愉快的事物评价不那么消极
were evaluating these unpleasantthings less negatively
而对愉快的事情的评价则不那么积极
and these pleasant things less positively.
-在另一个案例中
– [Narrator] And in another case,
一组宫颈癌幸存者的脊髓神经被切断
one group of cervical cancer survivorshad nerves in their spinal cords cut
以减轻腹痛
to relieve abdominal pain,
不幸的是 她们也失去了性高潮的能力
unfortunately,they also lost their ability to orgasm.
痛苦和快乐是同一枚硬币的两面
Pain and pleasure are twosides of the same coin.
很难想象其中一个没有另一面
It’s hard to imagineone without the other.
-如果你明天醒来
– If you were to wake up tomorrow
不再会经历任何痛苦
and just no longer experience any pain,
那对你来说会是糟糕的一天
that would be a bad day for you.
-看来疼痛还会持续下去
– [Narrator] So, it lookslike pain is here to stay.
我们还是好好享受吧
We might as well enjoy it.

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疼痛和快乐是祸福相生的,当我们失去痛觉时,我们也同时会失去对快乐的感觉,所以好好享受痛和快乐吧

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bwmviUxwaTQ

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