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为什么辣味源于疼痛 – 译学馆
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为什么辣味源于疼痛

Why Do Hot Peppers Cause Pain?

你曾经尝试过这个(墨西哥辣椒)
You’ve had this before (show jalapeno).
你知道那种嘴巴着火的感觉
You know that mouth on fire experience.
汗液 泪水 疼痛
The sweat, the tears, the pain.
全部来自于看起来不起眼的东西
All from something so little and friendly looking.
所以这些小东西是
So what is it about one of these little guys that
如何让一个人流泪的呢
can bring a person to tears?
这些都来源于化学因素
Well it all comes down to chemistry.
[介绍]
[SPLASH INTRO]
我们开门见山好了
We’re going to cut to the chase.
这是一种辣椒素
It’s capsaicin.
辣椒素无色无味
Capsaicin is a colorless, odorless
大多数辣椒素集中在辣椒的这个组织中
substance most heavily concentrated around the tissue of a pepper that
当你吃这些辛辣的东西的时候 它会给你一种嘴巴着火的感觉
gives you that mouth on fire feeling when eating something spicy.
辣椒素本身并不辣
Capsaicin is not hot.
是的
That’s right.
辣椒不辣 至少
Hot peppers are not hot, at least
没有很强的说服力
not of a thermal persuasion.
我们只是觉得它们给人灼热感
We just perceive them as being hot.
所以 它们或许是辣的 我们将会
So maybe they are hot…we’ll save
在哲学视频中保存这一争论
that debate for a philosophy video.
总之 在辣椒或者辛辣食物中的辣椒素会与TRPV1受体结合
Anyway, capsaicin in hot peppers or spicy foods binds to TRPV1 receptors
TRPV1受体处在你嘴里以及身体中的其他组织中
that live in your mouth and in other tissues in your body.
除其他外 此痛觉感受器会检测到热的物质
Among other things, this pain receptor detects HOT substances like boiling
比如沸水 或者滚烫的食物以及酸性和一些带有苦味的物质
water or piping hot food as well as acidic and some bitter substances
这些会对我们的身体造成损伤
that could cause damage to our tissues.
但是辣椒素分子会融入TRPV1受体
But capsaicin molecules fit into TRPV1 receptors.
所以当吃墨西哥辣椒或者带有辣椒素的食物的时候
So when eating a jalapeno or something with capsaicin in it,
辣椒素会与我们口中的TRPV1受体神经元结合
the capsaicin binds to the TRPV1 receptors of neurons in our mouth,
而神经元会向我们的大脑发送神经信号 提醒我们
which send neural signal to our brain telling us we’re
正在吃一些不应该吃的东西
eating something that we shouldn’t be.
辣椒素被当作造成疼痛的物质 这使得我们的大脑
The capsaicin is perceived as pain causing our brain to send chemical
向身体发送化学信号 尽快把辣椒素从身体中驱逐出去
signals to our body to get this out of our system ASAP.
这就是为什么当我们吃辛辣食物的时候 我们会流鼻涕
This is why when we eat something spicy our noses start running,
泪流不止 并且
tears stream from our eyes and
想要喝冷饮的原因
we want to drink something cold.
我们的身体会发动一切力量
Our body is doing everything it can
把这种物质排除出去 或者至少抑制我们感受到的灼热感
to get this substance OUT or at least to squelch the heat we’re perceiving.
辣椒中的辣椒素的含量越高
The higher the amount of capsaicin in a pepper, the more there is to bind
它结合你身体中的TRPV1受体的可能性就越大 并且
to your TRPV1 receptors and the more
你对辣椒的不良反应也越强烈
intense your reaction is to that pepper.
这可以用斯高维指数来衡量
This is measured on the Scoville scale.
它说 你只要咬一口鬼椒
Say you just bit into a ghost pepper.
辣椒素就会和你口里的所有TRPV1受体结合
The capsaicin binds to TRPV1 receptors all over your mouth
你就会感觉全身着火一样
and you feel like you’re on fire.
每个人都告诉你要使用牛奶
Everyone is telling you to reach for milk to alleviate
来减轻这种感觉 但是为什么是使用牛奶呢
this hell but why milk?
让我们看一下这个分子
Let’s look at the molecules.
辣椒素分子一端会有一个长长的烃尾 这意味着
Capsaicin has an end with a long hydrocarbon tail, meaning it’s
它是非极性的 而非极性分子的特点之一就是
nonpolar and one thing about nonpolar
会溶解在其它非极性物质之中
molecules is they dissolve in other nonpolar substances.
就像这样溶解一样
Like dissolves like.
水是一种极性物质 所以在吃完辣椒后喝水
Water is a polar substance so drinking water after eating a
就像把油和水混合一样 不会起任何作用
hot pepper is like mixing oil and water, it won’t work out that well.
水会将辣椒素扩散到你的整个嘴巴中 加剧这种痛感
Water will spread the capsaicin around your mouth intensifying the pain.
但是牛奶包含非极性分子 所以辣椒素会溶解在牛奶里
But milk contains nonpolar molecules so the capsaicin will dissolve
并且会冲刷掉你口里的辣椒素 给你一种甜甜的愉快的安慰感
in the milk and wash out of your mouth, giving you sweet sweet relief.
除了牛奶的非极性功能外 乳制品还
In addition to their nonpolar powers, dairy products
包含酪蛋白
contain the protein casein
这会吸附辣椒素分子
which attracts capsaicin molecules.
所以牛奶或者冰淇淋
So milk or ice cream actively pulls
会把辣椒素分子从你的TRPV1受体中拉出来并溶解掉它们
the capsaicin molecules off your TRPV1 receptors and dissolves them.
对于那些几乎不能处理这种痛苦的人来说有一个好消息
And there is good news for those of you who can barely handle the pain:
你吃的辣椒素越多 你建立的忍耐度就越强
the more capsaicin you eat, the more of a tolerance you build.
这是因为当你吃越来越多辛辣食物时
This is because the TRPV1 receptors
你舌头上的TRTV1受体
on your tongue become desensitized
会对这些辛辣食物变得麻木
as you eat more and more spicy foods.
所以 去吧 放心吃吧
SO go on, eat up.
奥 还有一件事
Oh, and one more thing.
到了又一次赠送礼物的时间了 我们想要给你
It’s that gift giving time of year again–and we want to give you
一份我们的图表海报
one of our infographic posters.
在评论区 让我们知道你最喜欢的化学反应
Let us know your favorite chemical reaction and
以及喜欢这个化学反应的原因
why in the comments section.
我们将会在评论中随机挑选三位幸运用户 这三位用户会得到咖啡 龙舌兰酒
We’ll pick three winners at random to get a coffee, tequila
或一份月图
or moon infographic sent to you.
幸运用户会在十二月七号挑选出来 所以赶紧在下方评论吧
The winners will be picked December 7th so get commenting!
当你在去杂货店买牛奶的路上时 别忘了点击订阅按钮
And don’t forget to hit the subscribe button
订阅我们的视频哟
on your way out to the grocery store to buy more milk.

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视频概述

本视频介绍了吃辣椒感到痛苦的原因,以及为什么用牛奶等奶制品会对减轻辣感比较有效。

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收集自网络

翻译译者

73

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A

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=73yo5nJne6c

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