ADM-201 dump PMP dumps pdf SSCP exam materials CBAP exam sample questions

心脏细胞会转变成骨细胞? – 译学馆
未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

心脏细胞会转变成骨细胞?

Why Do Heart Cells Turn into Bone?

像钙和磷酸盐这样的矿物质使你的骨骼保持坚硬
Minerals like calcium and phosphate keep your bones tough and rigid, so your limbs can be
这样你的四肢才能正常地活动你的躯体才不至于成为一堆软乎乎的组织
attached properly, and your body’s not just a squishy mess of tissue.
但有时矿物质能够在意料之外的地方起作用
But sometimes minerals can build up where they’re not supposed to.
事实上 心脏病发作后你的部分心肌组织能有效的转化为骨
In fact, after a heart attack, some of your heart tissue could effectively turn into bone.
这可能听起来像是一种超强突变但实际上这相当危险
This might sound kind of like a mutant superpower, but it’s actually really dangerous, and
并且曾经困扰了科学家一段时间
has perplexed scientists for a while.
但发表在Cell Stem Cell杂志上的最新研究表明
But a new study published in the journal Cell Stem Cell suggests that these bony calcium
这些骨钙沉积仅仅是心脏试图治愈自身的不良副产物
deposits are just an unfortunate byproduct of the heart trying to heal itself.
心肌组织和骨组织具有完全不同的功能 这并不奇怪
It’s no surprise that heart tissue and bone tissue have really different jobs.
心肌必须灵活 以一定的节律跳动从而保持血液循环
Heart muscle has to be flexible and beat in a rhythm to keep your blood circulating.
你的心跳受到心肌细胞中传递的电信号的控制
Your heartbeat is controlled by electrical signals that spread through the muscle cells
这些心肌细胞构成不同的心脏室
that make up different heart chambers.
因此当心脏组织变得僵硬和矿化时它也就不能执行这些电信号了
So when heart tissue turns all stiff and mineralized, it can’t conduct those signals as well,
心脏不能保持平稳的心跳这种情况叫做心肌梗死
and your heart can’t keep that smooth, steady beat – a condition called heart block.
并且这些钙沉积物一旦形成目前没有医疗手段能够分解
And there’s currently no medical treatment to break down these calcium deposits if they
它们
form.
这些类骨组织会在心脏病发作后形成它们会阻碍血液流动
This bone-like tissue can form after a heart attack, where blood flow gets blocked, so
因此细胞会缺氧并开始坏死
the cells get deprived of oxygen and start to die.
我们知道 心脏受伤时会自我修复
We know that the heart can kind of repair itself when it gets injured.
事实上 在更早的文献中这个团队的研究显示 一些心脏细胞
In fact, in an earlier paper, this team of researchers showed that some heart cells can
甚至能够转而承担修补工作
even switch jobs to try and patch things up.
通常 所有成熟细胞都有其特定功能并且一直保持这样
See, usually, all mature cells take on a specific function and stay that way forever.
但罕见地 在接收到来自身体的正确信号时某些细胞可以改变形态
But rarely, with the right signal from the body, certain cells can change forms.
这种情况下 这些“变节者”被称为心脏成纤维细胞 它是一种连接细胞
In this case, the turncoats are called cardiac fibroblasts, a type of connective cell, which
能够在机体受伤之后成为血管细胞
can become blood vessel cells after an injury.
在本周发表的研究中这些研究者发现心脏成纤维细胞
And in the study published this week, these researchers found that cardiac fibroblasts
也能够表现成骨细胞的特性成骨细胞负责在骨骼中
can also become cells that act just like osteoblasts, the cells responsible for depositing minerals
储存矿物质
in your bones.
为了弄清楚 他们从心脏钙化的老鼠身上获取成纤维细胞
To figure this out, they took heart fibroblasts from mice with calcified hearts and put them
然后放到正常老鼠心脏里
in healthy mice hearts.
他们观察到这些类成骨细胞开始储存钙质
They observed that these osteoblast-like cells started depositing calcium, and mineralizing
并矿化其他细胞
other cells.
他们仍然不能完全确定心脏细胞为何会大量释放矿物质
They’re still not completely sure why heart cells would start spewing out minerals, but
但那可能是一个意外
it’s probably an accident.
可能成纤维细胞试图通过转变功能来变的更有用 但它们搞砸了
Maybe the fibroblasts are trying to switch jobs one way to be helpful, they mess up,
走上了一条不同的发展道路
and go down a different developmental path.
研究者希望 通过理解心脏细胞的犯错机制
The researchers hope that by understanding how heart cells can make this mistake, they’ll
他们能够开发出阻断病人体内这种钙沉积的药物
be able to develop drugs that block this sort of calcium buildup in patients.
许多科学家在研究很不起眼但是可能在人体中
Lots of scientists are researching really
出错的过程 但是还有很多科学家关注的是全球的
small things that can go wrong in human bodies, but plenty are also looking at planet-wide
问题
issues.
比如 一些鱼类种群数量由于商业捕鱼和气候变化的原因
For example, some fish populations are plummeting because of things like commercial fishing
而骤降
and climate change.
并不是你把头伸到水下数数就能核实
And it’s not like you can just stick your head underwater and count them to check on
危害的程度
the damage.
因此 在一项新研究中一个丹麦的研究团队认为 一苏打水瓶的海水
So, in a new paper, a team of Danish researchers think a soda bottle full of seawater might
可能能够告诉我们 海里有多少鱼 是什么种类的
have the power to tell us how many and what kinds of fish are in the ocean.
监视鱼类种群数量的一种方法是拖网作业即在海底撒一张大网
One strategy to keep tabs on fish populations is trawling, or dragging a big net across
看看能捞上来什么
the seafloor and seeing what you scoop up.
但是这种方法存在问题:不是所有的海底都平坦到适合撒网
But it has its problems: only part of the ocean floor is flat enough to drag a net across,
一些大型的动物能轻易地避开网这种方法太具侵略性
some bigger animals can easily avoid the nets, it’s pretty invasive, and it’s not all
并且没有那么快
that fast.
研究者也可以了解渔业公司捕到的鱼数量
Researchers can also ask commercial fishing companies how much they’ve caught, and try
以此来推断鱼类种群的数量
to estimate fish populations that way.
但现在是二十一世纪了如今我们有更酷的科学玩具
But this is the twenty-first century, and we have cool sciencey toys now, like quick,
比如快速 廉价 精确的DNA测序
cheap, accurate DNA sequencing.
鱼类在水中会一直脱落DNA就像我们人类到哪都会留下
Fish shed DNA in the water all the time, just like we humans leave bits and pieces of ourselves
我们自身的皮屑毛发一样
wherever we go.
所以一个丹麦的研究者团队认为他们可以从水中取得一些环境DNA 或eDNA
So instead of scooping up the fish, a team of Danish researchers figured they could just
来取代捕鱼 然后将得到的DNA和已有的
scoop up a bunch of environmental DNA, or eDNA, from the water, and match it to known
组织样本和序列进行比对
tissue samples and sequences.
他们同时进行了拖网作业研究和这个eDNA研究
They ran a traditional trawling study side-by-side with this eDNA study, pulling up two liters
在每个撒网的地方取两升水样–一瓶苏打水的量
of water – a soda-bottle sized amount – everywhere they dropped a net.
在大多数情况下eDNA能够告诉他们在那片海里有哪些
And, for the most part, the eDNA was able to tell them what was in that part of the
动物
ocean.
eDNA测序确实漏掉了一些拖网作业捕到的稀有鱼 说明两升水
eDNA sequencing did miss some rare fish that trawling caught, suggesting that two liters
里这些鱼DNA的含量不够多
of water just didn’t have enough of their DNA in it.
另外 科学家仍然在研究如何用DNA的含量估计
Plus, the scientists are still figuring out how the amount of DNA can be used to estimate
海里鱼的数量
the actual number of fish in the water.
但对其中一个物种 格陵兰鲨鱼来说eDNA方法实际上已经
But in the case of one species, the Greenland shark, the eDNA method may actually have done
比拖网作业得到了更好的结果
a better job than trawling.
研究者说格陵兰鲨鱼大到能够避开拖网
The researchers say that Greenland sharks are big enough to avoid trawling nets.
但这个问题不适用于它们的DNA 所以eDNA方法可能提供了更好的方法估计它们的
But this issue doesn’t apply to their DNA, so it might provide a better estimate of their
数量
numbers.
主要是因为eDNA测序对环境的破坏性比拖网作业小得多 这些科学家认为
Mostly, because eDNA sequencing is much less invasive than trawling, these scientists think
这是未来鱼类研究一个很有前途的方向即使它仍需改善
it’s a promising option for future fish studies, even though it still needs some refining.
谢谢观看由我们的President of Space带来的本期科学秀
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow News, brought to you by our President of Space,
你一定猜到了
you guessed it….
SR Foxley
SR Foxley!
谢谢SR
Thanks SR!
如果你想赞助本节目可以去patreon.com/scishow
And if you want to help support this show, you can go to patreon.com/scishow.
别忘了去youtube.com/scishow订阅我们
And don’t forget to go to youtube.com/scishow and subscribe!

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述
听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

气氕氘氚

审核员

【MO】哒

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wvVYBNCrhrU

相关推荐