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为什么好人也会做坏事? – 译学馆
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为什么好人也会做坏事?

Why Do Good People Sometimes Do Bad Things?

[前奏曲]
[INTRO ♪]
《心理科学秀》
SciShow PSYCH
多数时候 世界并不是非黑即白
Most days, the world isn’t a clear-cut,
界限分明的地方
black-and-white kind of place.
这意味着
And that means that sometimes,
你以为的好人有时也会做坏事
people you think are good do bad things.
事实上 好人有时做坏事
In fact, sometimes good people do bad things
是因为他们平时都在做好事
because they normally do good things.
这就是所谓的“道德许可”
This is what’s known as moral licensing,
也叫“自我许可”或“道德自我许可”
also called self-licensing or moral self-licensing.
虽然听起来难以理解
And while it sounds like it might not make a lot of sense,
但你可能比你想象的更熟悉它
you might be more familiar with it than you would like to think.
所谓道德许可
Moral licensing is basically what happens
就是你因为一直在做好事
every time you decide that
所以觉得有些东西理应属于你
you deserve something because you have been good.
当一个行为在道德上模棱两可时
When an action is morally ambiguous,
以往做的好事会让你觉得
your history of doing good things can make you feel
可以给自己放个小假
like you can cut yourself some slack
让自己破例一下
and grant yourself an exception.
值得庆幸的是 那些坏事通常没那么糟
Thankfully, those bad things aren’t usually that bad.
就好像是 你刚上完“动感单车”课
Like, maybe you got a ginormous waffle cone
就吃了只超大的甜筒
after your spin class
或者你这个月存了不少钱
or you bought those sweet new kicks that you can’t really afford
于是买下了那双原本买不起的潮鞋
because you’ve done such a good job saving this month.
你瞧!你怎么做都行!我们不会评判你的
Look! You do you! We don’t judge.
犒劳自己吧!
Treat yo self!
但道德许可会削弱我们实现目标的能力
But moral licensing can undermine our ability to meet our goals.
而且道德许可还有更邪恶的一面:
And it also has an even more sinister side :
道德许可会让人们允许自己行骗
It can cause people to give themselves permission to cheat
或者变得更有偏见
or to be more prejudiced.
那么 为什么我们会这么做?
So why do we do it,
怎么做才能在必要时阻止它发生呢?
and what can we do, when necessary, to put a stop to it?
研究人员发现
Researchers have found that moral licensing
道德许可发生在很多不同的情况下
shows up in a whole bunch of different situations.
2017年的一项研究发现
One 2017 study found that
参加企业社会责任项目的员工
employees who participated in a corporate social responsibility program
更有可能在实际工作中逃避责任
were more likely to shirk their duties for their actual job,
因为他们觉得自己已经在做好事了
because they felt like they were doing good.
无独有偶 2013年的水资源保护计划中
Similarly, participants who were part of a
项目参与者的确节约了水……
2013 water conservation program did save water…
但最终却用了更多电
but ended up using more electricity.
然而 某些例子更令人担忧
Some of the examples, though, were a lot more… concerning.
例如 在一项研究中
For example, in one study,
那些宣称反对性别歧视的人
people who had a chance to disagree with some really sexist statements
相对于女性求职者 反而更青睐男性求职者
tended to favor a male candidate for a job over a female one later on.
此外 一项包含约100名参与者的研究表明
And another paper with around 100 participants
那些吹捧奥巴马的人
showed that those who endorsed Barack Obama
之后可能更信奉白人至上主义
were more likely to later make pro-white judgments.
值得注意的是 一些元分析发现
It’s worth pointing out that some meta-analyses have found that
道德许可的证据如此确凿
the strength of the evidence for moral licensing
部分原因在于“发表偏差”现象
is due in part to a publication bias.
毕竟 比起阴性研究结果
Interesting findings, after all,
有趣的研究结果更容易被发表
are more likely to get published than ones showing no effect.
但即便考虑到这点
But even taking that into account,
道德许可似乎依然存在着
moral licensing still appears to be A Thing.
事实证明
And it turns out
你甚至不必做好事 也能在之后松懈下来
you don’t even have to do the good stuff to cut yourself slack later on.
比如 一项研究发现
Like, one study found that participants
想象自己同意帮助另一个同学的参与者
who had imagined agreeing to help another student
就会在后面的捐款环节
donated less money in a follow-up task
比没想过做好事的人捐更少的钱
than those who hadn’t imagined doing anything nice.
只要随便写点好话夸自己
Writing about yourself in generally positive terms,
不必回忆起具体做过的什么好事
rather than recalling some specific incident of good behavior,
似乎也能起到作用
also seems to do the trick.
还有一个现象做“道德净化”
And then there’s moral cleansing,
它是道德许可的对立面
which is sort of the opposite of moral licensing.
当我们开始觉得自己道德有失的时候
When we’re starting to feel like we don’t come across as particularly moral,
我们会做些事让自己好受或者看起来更好
we’ll do something to make ourselves feel or seem better.
比如 在一项研究中
Like, in one study,
参与者在抄写了不道德的故事后
participants were more likely to literally sanitize their hands
更容易做出手部消毒的行为
after copying out a story about people doing some immoral stuff.
但是这些例子引发了一个问题
But all these different examples beg the question of
道德平衡究竟是怎么生效的?
how this mental arithmetic actually happens?
我们如何决定何时给自己回旋的余地?
How do we decide when we can give ourselves some moral wiggle room?
目前为止 有两种运作模式
So far, there are two models for how it might work:
“道德信誉”模型和“道德凭证”模型
the moral credits model and the moral credentials model.
在道德信誉模型中
In the moral credits model,
好行为和坏行为就像
good and bad behaviors are like
银行账户上的存款和扣款一样
credits and debits on a bank account.
如果你做了好事
If you do something good,
那么你就有道德信誉去做些坏事
then you have moral credit to spend on being naughty.
在道德凭证模型中
In the moral credentials model,
过去的行为塑造了你对自己的认知
past behavior shapes your sense of who you are.
所以当情况模棱两可时
So in an ambiguous situation,
一件所谓的坏事其实可好可坏
where something might be bad but it could kind of go either way,
因此你更倾向觉得那件坏事其实并没那么坏
you’re more likely to decide that the bad thing really isn’t that bad after all.
因为你绝对不是那种干坏事的人
Because you’re for sure not the kind of person who does bad things.
心理学家普遍很喜欢这两个模型
Psychologists generally like these two models,
但他们还解释不了到底哪个模型
but they can’t say yet which of them
能更好地解释道德许可
is better at explaining moral licensing.
部分问题在于
Part of the problem is that
道德许可最终可能取决于其他因素
it might ultimately depend on other factors.
例如 2013年的一项研究发现
For instance, one 2013 study found that
参与者根据受评判人不同的社会经济状况
participants licensed certain immoral behaviors differently
对某些不道德行为给出了不同的许可
depending on the socioeconomic status of the person they were judging,
这就带来了不一样的麻烦
which is a whole different can of worms.
但是关于道德许可 有些事情是肯定的
But, there are some things we can say about moral licensing.
许多心理学家认为
Many psychologists believe that
当好坏之间的界限更模糊时
it’s more likely to happen when the badness of the thing
人更容易选择做坏事
being licensed is more ambiguous.
而且我们不仅想让别人觉得我们是好人
And it’s also not just about making others think we’re good people.
这也关乎我们如何看待自己
It’s also about how we think of ourselves.
例如 即使观众不知道
For instance, we’ll let ourselves get away
我们其实一直是良好公民
with bad behavior in front of an audience
在观众面前
even if that audience doesn’t know
我们还是会允许自己做坏事
we’re usually upstanding citizens.
我们还有一些好的方法
We also have some pretty good ideas about
杜绝道德许可的现象
how to put the brakes on moral licensing.
当它干扰了你实现目标的过程
For the kind that interferes with you achieving your goals,
你就要从不同角度看待你的目标
reframing the way you think about those goals can help.
心理学家建议
Psychologists suggest thinking of
把迈向目标的初期阶段看作是在立下承诺
the first steps toward a goal as a commitment you’re making,
而不是只是你到目前为止的进步
not just some pretty good progress so far.
因为之前的进步会让我们懈怠
Because good progress can allow us to let ourselves slack off.
至于其他的
And for everything else?
只要记得我们能克服这种偏见
Just knowing that it’s a bias can help us counter it.
它会在我们出现懈怠时及时提醒
It lets us pay more attention to
并且给出原因
when we let things slide and why.
这可以帮助确保
And that can help us make sure that
我们做事是出于自己能接受的理由
we’re doing the stuff we’re doing for reasons that we’re okay with.
感谢收看本期《心理科学秀》
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow Psych!
如果要进一步了解偏差和人类的倾向
If you would like to learn more about bias and the tendencies that shape people,
可以观看关于隐性偏见的一集
you might want to watch our episode on implicit bias,
以及人人是否都有种族歧视的一集
and whether or not everybody is a little bit racist.
准备开始观看吧
Buckle up.
[片尾曲]
[OUTRO ♪]

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视频概述

有时候我们会发现,我们明明认为是好人的人,居然也会做坏事?事实上,世界并不是非黑即白的。是否选择做坏事,每个人心里都有一本账。

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rs1vxKsBdxg

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