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为什么胎动看起来那么剧烈?

Why Do Fetuses Kick So Much?

Thanks to Brilliant for supporting this episode of SciShow.
感谢Brilliant对本期《科学秀》的支持
Go to Brilliant.org/SciShow
登录Brilliant.org/SciShow
to learn how you can take your STEM skills to the next level.
学习如何提升你的STEM能力
The feeling of a kicking fetus is perhaps
胎动可能是妊娠过程中
one of the more fun parts of having a baby.
比较有趣的一个部分了
And these movements serve a purpose well beyond letting you know
胎动的目的不仅仅是让你知道
that that little thing is in there.
那个小东西在里面
Like the pilots in Pacific Rim learning to control their giant robotic Jaegers,
这些动作表明 婴儿正在学习控制身体
these movements are evidence
就像电影《环太平洋》里的飞行员
that your tiny incipient human’s brain is learning to control its body.
学习控制他们的巨型机器猎人一样
When a fetus is in the womb,
胎儿在子宫时
it’s not just sitting around waiting to be born.
并不是傻傻等着出生
It’s actually working really hard to learn everything
它需要艰苦地学习
it needs to survive in the outside world,
在外部世界生存的技能
including breathing, swallowing, and, of course, moving.
比如呼吸 吞咽 当然还有移动
There are over six hundred muscles in the human body,
人体有六百多块肌肉
which makes for a lot of controls to master.
胎儿需要学习很多才能掌握
So fetuses need to get an early start,
所以胎儿需要早点开始
and the womb is the perfect place to get some practice in.
而子宫是练习的最佳场所
The first fetal movements happen around seven weeks after the parent’s last period.
第一次胎动发生在妊娠七周左右
Which is pretty early!
相当早
They consist of slow bending movements of the head and trunk,
包括头部和躯干的缓慢弯曲运动
and eventually simple movements of the arms and legs.
还有胳膊和腿的简单动作
Things start to change at a postmenstrual age of nine to ten weeks.
情况在妊娠九到十周开始改变
That’s when the fetus starts to move with all the parts of its body,
此时胎儿身体的各个部分都开始移动
and the directions and speeds of these movements start to vary.
且这些动作的方向和速度都不一致
These movement patterns are called general movements,
这些动作模式被称为一般动作
and their purpose is to explore all the possible combinations
而其目的是探索胎儿微小身体
of movements the fetus’s tiny body can make.
所能做出的所有可能的动作组合
These movements generate proprioceptive sensory signals,
这些运动产生本体感觉信号
that is, sensory information about the position and movement of the body.
也就是关于身体位置和运动的感官信息
Every possible general movement has its own set of proprioceptive signals,
每种一般运动都有自己的本体感受信号
which helps the brain learn what these movements feel like.
这有助于大脑学习这些动作的感觉
So not only is the brain sending out all sorts of commands to the muscles in the body,
所以不仅大脑会给身体肌肉发送各种指令
but the body is teaching the brain the consequences of those commands.
而身体会教给大脑这些指令的结果
The brain is learning what groups of neurons are responsible for what movements.
大脑正在学习哪组神经元负责哪些动作
It’s essentially the equivalent of learning to control a Jaeger
这本质上相当于学会通过挥舞双臂
by flailing your arms and seeing what happens.
来控制机器猎人 看看会发生什么
It doesn’t end there, though.
不过还没结束
General movements continue to evolve and change throughout pregnancy
一般运动在整个妊娠期以及出生后几个月
and into the first few months after birth.
都会不断演变和变化
More or less.
或多或少
See, these changes in general movements occur at fairly predictable postmenstrual ages,
一般运动的变化发生在相当可预测的妊娠时期
but are not affected by birth.
但不受出生影响
Infants who are born prematurely tend to follow the same motor development patterns
过早出生的婴儿往往遵循
as their counterparts who are still in utero,
与仍在子宫内的婴儿相同的运动发育模式
but are the same postmenstrual age.
但都是一样的妊娠时期
It seems like the brain still needs about the same amount of time
似乎不管它是否还在子宫里
to learn to control the body,
大脑仍需要大约相同的时间
regardless of whether or not it is still in the uterus.
来学习控制身体
It’s not until several months after birth
出生几个月后 这些一般动作
that these general movements are replaced with goal-directed movements,
才能被目标指向性的动作代替
movements used to accomplish specific goals, like rolling over or reaching.
用来完成特定动作 如翻身或触达
However, there are a few goal-directed movements
然而 有一些目标指向性的运动
that have to be learned in the uterus.
必须在子宫中学会
Sucking and swallowing are vital
吮吸和吞咽是至关重要的
because they help a newborn eat,
因为它们帮助新生儿进食
and therefore survive.
只有这样才能活下去
So they have to develop before birth.
所以必须在出生前发育完成
Fetuses have to learn to breathe too,
胎儿也必须学会呼吸
which they seem to do via hiccuping.
他们似乎是通过打嗝来学习的
Other than that, infants tend to learn goal-directed movements
除此之外 婴儿倾向于在出生后
in a consistent order after birth,
学习一系列的目标指向性动作
starting with eye tracking and head balance,
最开始是 眼球追踪和头部平衡
and advancing to rolling over, grasping objects,
然后是 向前滚动 抓住物体
crawling, sitting, standing, and eventually walking.
爬行 坐着 站着 最终能行走
Turns out it’s hard work learning to pilot a human body.
事实证明 学会操纵人体是一项艰苦的工作
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow!
感谢收看本期科学秀
If you want to keep learning,
如果你想继续学习
why not make a goal-directed movement over to Brilliant?
为何不做个目标指向性的运动 走向辉煌?
Brilliant is a problem solving-based website and app with a hands-on approach,
Brilliant是一个以解决问题为基础的网站和应用程序
with over 60 interactive courses in math, science, and computer science.
拥有超过60门数学 科学和计算机科学的互动课程
And if we’ve got you thinking right now,
如果现在我们让你开始思考
“You know, I really do want to learn how to pilot a giant robot,”
“我真的很想学习如何驾驶巨型机器人”
they might be a good place to start.
他们也许是好的开始
Like their course on algorithm fundamentals,
比如他们的算法基础课程
which is all about getting computers to do what you want.
就是让电脑做你想做的事
Sound close?
听起来接近吗?
Right now, the first 200 people to sign up at Brilliant.org/SciShow
现在 注册Brilliant.org/SciShow网站的
will get 20% off the annual Premium subscription.
前200名用户可以享受20%的年费优惠
So go forth and design your Jaegers!
所以去设计你的机甲猎人吧!

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视频概述

你知道吗?婴儿出生之前,就在妈妈肚子里探索身体极限了

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

lazzzy

审核员

审核员XY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OMcB6bKruec

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