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为什么蚯蚓在下雨后出来? – 译学馆
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为什么蚯蚓在下雨后出来?

Why Do Earthworms Come Out After It Rains?

大雨过后,我们有时会看到泥土里有蚯蚓钻出来
After a heavy rainstorm, you’ve probably seen worms popping out of the soil, getting
困在人行道和停车场上
stranded all over sidewalks and parking lots.
然而因为鸟类捕食 人类捕杀和太阳光照 对蚯蚓来说
But between birds, clumsy humans, and the sun, it’s dangerous for a worm to climb
离开它们安全舒适的洞穴成为了很危险的事情
out of its safe, cozy burrow.
可是无论何时只要一开始下雨 它们就会立刻弃窝逃生
And yet they suddenly abandon ship whenever it starts raining.
科学家们提出了各种可能的理由来解释大雨导致的这种行为现象
Scientists have come up with plenty of possible reasons why rain might trigger this behavior.
但是没有一个理由被大家认同
But they don’t quite agree on all of them.
其中最早的一个假设 也是唯一一个你们可能听过的假设就是
The oldest hypothesis — and the one you might’ve heard — is that
蚯蚓钻出地面是为了避免溺亡
That’s because worms take in oxygen through their skin in a passive process called diffusion,
这是因为蚯蚓是通过一个叫做扩散的被动过程 用它们的皮肤吸收氧气的
That’s because worms take in oxygen through their skin in a passive process called diffusion,
氧气从浓度高的体外到进入
where oxygen moves from the higher concentration outside their bodies
浓度较低的体内
to the lower concentration inside.
暴雨过后土壤被水淹没 但只要溶解在水中的氧气足够多
When soil floods after a rainstorm, worms can usually still breathe if there’s enough
蚯蚓通常仍可以呼吸
oxygen dissolved in the water.
但是水的密度比空气大 所以扩散速度要慢很多 慢了1000倍之多
But water is a lot denser than air, so diffusion is much slower — like, up to 1000 times slower.
这就意味着蚯蚓在倾盆大雨之后更难进行呼吸
Which means that for a worm, it could be a lot harder to breathe after a downpour, which
大雨还会将它们冲出地面
could make them rush to the surface.
但是一些生物学家指出 许多蚯蚓实际上能在水中活上好几天
But some biologists have pointed out that plenty of worms can actually live for /days/
虽然这可能取决于它们的物种
submerged in water — although some of that may depend on the species.
一个2008年发表的研究发现 两个不同物种的蚯蚓
***One study, published in 2008, found that two different species of worms use different
需要的氧气量也不同
amounts of oxygen.
一种常见的热带蚯蚓使用的氧气相对较少 所以在下雨后
A common tropical worm uses relatively little, so it doesn’t come up to the surface after
它不会爬出地面
it rains.
但另一种叫Alabama Jumper的蚯蚓需要更多的氧气 尤其是在晚上 并且会爬出地面
But another worm, the Alabama Jumper, needs more oxygen, especially at night, and it does surface.
所以 有些蚯蚓可能需要爬出地面呼吸或者至少它们喜欢这样做
So, there may be worms who do need to surface
而另外一些则不必
to breathe — or at least prefer to — while others don’t.
还有一些专家认为蚯蚓爬出地面另有原因
Other experts think worms might surface for different reasons.
他们声称蚯蚓逃离洞穴是因为雨水给它们提供了很好的旅行条件
They argue that worms flee their burrows because rain gives them great travel conditions.
蚯蚓在地面上移动得更快 它们在身体潮湿的时候能更快更安全地爬行
Earthworms move faster above ground, and they can crawl more quickly and safely when it’s
因为这样不容易被晒干
wet because they’re less likely to dry out.
一些科学家还提出蚯蚓是将渍水土壤作为交配求偶的信号
Some scientists have also proposed that worms take flooded soil as a cue to mate, possibly
可能会增加他们找到配偶的机会 但是这好像局限于夜行蚯蚓
to increase their chances of finding a partner, but that seems to be limited to nightcrawlers
和其他几个品种
and a few other species.
最后一个假说是雨滴落在土壤上产生振动
One last hypothesis is that raindrops landing on soil create vibrations similar to those
这种振动和蚯蚓的天敌之一鼹鼠产生的振动相似
made by one of the earthworm’s biggest predators: the mole.
如果蚯蚓感觉到某些震动 那它肯定会把自己
It’s definitely true that earthworms will book it to the nearest exit if they sense
送往最近的出口
certain tremors.
人们实际上通过利用这点发出吸引蚯蚓的声音
People actually exploit this by going worm grunting, where they catch worms to use as
通过在地上操纵木桩振动来把蚯蚓抓了当诱饵
bait by driving stakes into the ground and vibrating them.
但是实验证明蚯蚓只对模仿鼹鼠的振动敏感
But experiments suggest that worms are only sensitive to vibrations that mimic moles,
落下的雨滴欺骗不了它们
and that falling rain doesn’t do the trick.
我们可能不确定为什么蚯蚓会在暴风雨后优雅地出现在我们面前
So, we may not know for sure why earthworms grace us with their presence after a storm,
但我们至少知道如果想去钓鱼应该怎么做了
but at least we know what to do if we want to go fishing.
感谢Patreon上的赞助者Miranda McCarthy问了这个问题
Thanks to patreon patron Miranda McCarthy for asking this question, and thanks to all
也感谢所有赞助者 是你们带来了这些答案
our patrons, who keep these answers coming.
如果你想提交一个想要解答的问题 你可以到patreon.com/scishow上写下它
If you’d like to submit a question to be answered, you can go to patreon.com/scishow.
别忘了去youtube.com/scishow上订阅哦!
And don’t forget to go to youtube.com/scishow and subscribe!

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关于蚯蚓雨后亮相的原因不止一种哦,听听科学家们的解释吧

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翻译译者

jameschan

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V4zhogVAuqc

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